Her Father Henry VIII
• When Henry VII died in 1509,
this popular eighteen-year-old
prince became King Henry VIII.
• Soon after he obtained the
papal dispensation required to
allow him to marry his brother's
widow, Catherine of Aragon.
• In the first years of his reign
Henry VIII effectively relied on
Thomas Wolsey to rule for him,
and by 1515 Henry had elevated
him to the highest role in
government: Lord Chancellor.
• In 1521 Pope Leo X conferred the title of Defender of the Faith
on Henry for his book 'Assertio Septem
Sacramentorum', which affirmed the supremacy of the Pope
in the face of the reforming ideals of the German
theologian, Martin Luther.
• Henry VIII's early military campaigns began when he joined
Pope Julius II's Holy League against France in 1511.
• Wolsey proved himself to be an outstanding minister in his
organisation of the first French campaign and while the Scots
saw this war as an opportunity to invade England, they were
defeated at Flodden in 1513.
• However war with France ultimately proved expensive and
A Male Heir
• Henry was acutely aware of the importance of securing a male heir
during his reign. He was worried that he had only one surviving
child, Mary, to show for his marriage to Catherine, who was now in
• So the king asked Cardinal Wolsey to appeal to Pope Clement VII for
an annulment and it soon became clear he wanted to marry Anne
Boleyn, who had been a lady-in-waiting to his first wife.
• But, unwilling to anger Catherine of Aragon's nephew – the most
powerful ruler in Europe, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V – the
• In 1533, Henry VIII broke with the church and married the now
pregnant Anne Boleyn in a secret ceremony.
• Henry was excommunicated by the Pope. The English reformation
• Anne gave birth to Elizabeth (later to become Elizabeth I)
• Anne had two other miscarriages, Henry charged her with
adultery and beheaded her
• Married Jane Seymour, had a son, Edward, but died in
• Then married the daughter of a German
prince, Anne, divorced her a few months later
• Then married Catherine Howard, short lived, she was
executed for adultery (had affairs with people in Henry’s
• Final marriage was to Catherine Parr who outlived him
Where does this leave Mary?
• Mary was a devout Catholic
• Henry separated from the Catholic church to divorce Mary’s
mother and she was raised outside of Hampton Court
• Henry created the Church of England, which was founded in
the ideas of the Reformation and Protestantism
• Catholic monasteries were shut down and their land and
riches taken away from them
• Mary had a lot of hatred towards Henry and refused to
acknowledge him as head of the Church
• Eventually he reconciled with him and was brought back to
• She was named 2nd in line to the throne after Edward
Edward’s Death, Mary the
• Edward VI succeeded his father in 1547 and, under the
protectorate of the Duke of Northumberland, zealously
• Mary, however, remained a devout Catholic. When it became
clear that Edward was dying, Northumberland made plans for
his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, to take the throne in
• On Edward's death in 1553, Jane was briefly acclaimed queen.
But Mary had widespread popular support and within days
made a triumphal entry into London.
• Once queen, she was determined to re-impose Catholicism
and marry Philip II of Spain.
• Watch ‘Killer Queens’ and take notes on Mary’s evil deeds as
Mary I Queen of England
• Why do you think Mary was so evil?
• Can she be blamed for how she acted?