Day 2


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Day 2

  1. 1. <ul><li>Aircraft Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Reports and Forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Reports and Forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>FAR/AIM, NTSB 830, PTS, and Logbooks </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Factors Affecting Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Takeoff Data Card </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Weight and Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Performance Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Headwind/Crosswind Calculations </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Additional weight </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Runway surface and condition </li></ul><ul><li>Runway gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Density altitude and humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot technique </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Higher takeoff speed </li></ul><ul><li>Longer takeoff roll </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced rate and angle of climb </li></ul><ul><li>Higher landing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Longer landing roll </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Headwind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased takeoff/landing distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tailwind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased takeoff/ landing distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crosswind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tak </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Friction – more friction means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>longer takeoff roll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shorter landing roll </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upslope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased takeoff roll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased landing roll </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downslope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased takeoff roll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased landing roll </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Takeoff downhill / land uphill </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Air expands with heat and humidity and becomes less dense </li></ul><ul><li>The less dense the air, the less performance from the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Engine produces less power </li></ul><ul><li>Propeller is less efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Wing is less efficient </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Calculated based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pressure (barometric) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High density altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low density of the air (high altitude) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low density altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High density of the air (low altitued) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Failure to compute and appropriate weight and balance could cause injury or death </li></ul><ul><li>14 CFR 91.103(b)(2) “…other reliable information appropriate to the aircraft, relating to aircraft performance under expected values of airport elevation and runway slope, aircraft gross weight, and wind and temperature </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Higher takeoff speed </li></ul><ul><li>Longer takeoff roll </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced rate & angle of climb </li></ul><ul><li>Lower maximum altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter range (used more fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cruise speed </li></ul><ul><li>Less maneuverability </li></ul><ul><li>Higher stall speed </li></ul><ul><li>Longer landing roll </li></ul><ul><li>Additional stress on landing gear & structure </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Gross weight – aircraft may not fly </li></ul><ul><li>Angle of attack may not be able to create enough lift to fly the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Aft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better cruise performance, less stability, difficulty recovering from stalls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forward / aft GC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward – degraded cruise & climb performance and more difficult to rotate and flare due to larger taildown force requirement </li></ul></ul>
  12. 18. <ul><li>Arm – horizontal distance from datum </li></ul><ul><li>CG – the point at which aircraft would balance </li></ul><ul><li>Datum – reference line for arm measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Moment – weight x arm </li></ul><ul><li>Station – location designated by arm </li></ul><ul><li>Useful load – weight carrying capability </li></ul><ul><li>Empty weight – aircraft w/ equip, ballast, hydraulic fluid, undrainable oil, unuseable fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Basic empty weight – full oil </li></ul><ul><li>Max gross weight - max weight at any time </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum takeoff - max weight for takeoff </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum landing – max weight for landing </li></ul>
  13. 19. <ul><li>Need to determine the angle between the runway & wind direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If wind direction is variable use the largest angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed wind direction are true direction& runway orientation is magnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add or subtract variation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Variable winds – speed is variable </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to do it </li></ul>
  14. 21. <ul><li>The Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Air Masses Fronts </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Other Hazards Weather Conditions </li></ul>
  15. 24. <ul><li>Earth is surrounded by a thin layer of air </li></ul><ul><li>Air is composed of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and elements of other gases </li></ul><ul><li>Air also contains evaporated water </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapor is directly involved in all weather phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>50% of Earth’s atmosphere is contained below 18,000 </li></ul>
  16. 25. <ul><li>Every physical process of weather is accompanied by, or is the result of heat exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal heating of the Earth’s surface causes differences in pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Wind is the flow of air from high pressure to low pressure areas </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency of the atmosphere is to flow from the poles to the equator, heat up, rise and flow back to the poles </li></ul><ul><li>Coriolis force deflects wind to the right in the (northern hemisphere) </li></ul><ul><li>Surface friction influences wind flow </li></ul>
  17. 27. <ul><li>Force caused by spinning of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Varies in strength with latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Zero at the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Strongest at poles </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for changing north-south tendency of atmosphere into west-east pattern in the mid latitudes </li></ul>
  18. 29. <ul><li>Heating and cooling of air causes it to change pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot air rises and expands, causing lower surface pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air descends and contracts, causing higher surface pressure </li></ul></ul>
  19. 30. <ul><li>Wind is created as air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Coriolis force causes air flowing into or out of a pressure system to rotate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotates clockwise around a high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotates counterclockwise around a low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air flows counterclockwise, up, and into a low </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows clockwise , down, and out of a high </li></ul>
  20. 33. <ul><li>Earth’s atmosphere contains 1%-4% water vapor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor interacting with the heat exchange, is responsible for all weather </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moisture also slows down the standard lapse rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard lapse rate = 2 degrees C per 1000ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist-air lapse rate = 1degree C per 1000ft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moisture influences “dew point” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dew point = temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated by water vapor already present in the air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low temperature dew point spread = high humidity </li></ul></ul>
  21. 34. <ul><li>Water vapor content of the air </li></ul><ul><li>May be expressed as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative humidity – the ratio of the existing amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount that could exist at that temperature; usually expressed as a percent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing ratio – the ration by weight of the amount of water vapor in a volume of air to the amount of dry air; usually expressed as grams/kilograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific humidity – the ration by weight of water vapor in a sample of air to the combined weight of water vapor and dry air </li></ul></ul>
  22. 35. <ul><li>Stability is the tendency of the atmosphere to resist upward movement </li></ul><ul><li>Instability - (upward movement ) causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating from below – convective current (heat rises) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low pressure – because of its lifting tendency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air aloft – greater than normal lapse rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When air rises, it cools at a rate of 2 degrees C per 1000ft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater differential between hot and cold air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity – due to its slower lapse rate </li></ul></ul>
  23. 36. <ul><li>Characteristics of stable air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous precipitation (if any) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of unstable are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbulence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showery precipitation (if any) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulus clouds </li></ul></ul>
  24. 37. <ul><li>A temperature inversion is an increase in temperature as altitude increases </li></ul><ul><li>Air beneath inversion is very stable </li></ul><ul><li>Low visibility </li></ul><ul><li>“ Capping” effect on pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Develop near the ground on cool, clear nights </li></ul>
  25. 38. <ul><li>Four families – based on height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High- cirrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle – alto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low – (no prefix) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive vertical development- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>towering cumulus (turbulent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grouped according to appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulus=ragged or puffy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good indication of instability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratus = smooth and even; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good indication of stability </li></ul></ul>
  26. 39. <ul><li>Combined description examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirrostratus – high stratus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altostratus – medium stratus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratus – low stratus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Towering cumulus have extensive vertical development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can quickly develop into thunderstorms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual indicator of heavy turbulence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rain clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain clouds denoted by “nimbus” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thunderstorms are called cumulonimbus and contain the greatest turbulence </li></ul></ul>
  27. 40. <ul><li>Large areas of air that are formed over specific Earth regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air masses are constantly changing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating or cooling from below </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting or subsiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbing or losing moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its temperature is measured in relation to the temperature of the surface over which it is passing </li></ul></ul>
  28. 41. <ul><li>A cold air mass has a colder temperature than the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Warmed from below, convection currents will be set up, causing turbulence </li></ul><ul><li>Improved visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Types of clouds- </li></ul><ul><li>cumulus and cumulus nimbus </li></ul><ul><li>Ceilings – generally unlimited </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation –occasional local thunderstorms or showers </li></ul>
  29. 42. <ul><li>A warm air mass has a warmer temperature than the surface </li></ul><ul><li>No tendency for convection currents to form, resulting in smooth air </li></ul><ul><li>Poor visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Stable </li></ul><ul><li>Types of clouds – stratus and stratus cumulus </li></ul><ul><li>Ceilings –generally low </li></ul><ul><li>Types of precipitation – drizzle </li></ul>
  30. 43. <ul><li>Dissimilar air massed don’t readily mix and set up boundaries called frontal zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The colder air mass project under the warmer air mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The warmer air rises over the colder air mass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 types of fronts </li></ul><ul><li>Warm front </li></ul><ul><li>Cold front </li></ul><ul><li>Occluded front </li></ul><ul><li>Stationary front </li></ul>
  31. 44. <ul><li>Warmer air is overtaking and replacing the colder air </li></ul><ul><li>Cold air is more dense (heavier) than warm air-the cold air hugs the ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The warm air slides up and over the cold air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cold air is slow to retreat in advance of the warm air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This slowness of air to retreat produced a more gradual frontal slope than the one in the cold air front </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, a warm front, at the surface, is seldom as well marked as cold fronts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The move about half as fast </li></ul></ul>
  32. 46. <ul><li>The cold air is overtaking and replacing the warmer air </li></ul><ul><li>They move at about the speed of the wind component perpendicular to the front just above the frictional layer </li></ul>
  33. 48. <ul><li>Occluded front - when a cold front catches up with a warm front the two collide- where they collide is called an occluded front </li></ul><ul><li>Warm air trapped between the two air masses, is forced aloft </li></ul><ul><li>The weather is a combination of both the warm and the colds fronts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm - lowered ceilings, lowered visibility, precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold – squalls, turbulence, thunderstorms </li></ul></ul>
  34. 49. <ul><li>Stationary front - when neither air mass is replacing the other, the front is stationary </li></ul><ul><li>The opposing forces of the two air masses nullify one another and very little motion occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The surface winds tend to blow parallel to the frontal zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The slope of the stationary front is shallow </li></ul></ul>
  35. 51. <ul><li>600 miles prior – bright skies, unlimited </li></ul><ul><li>visibility and ceilings </li></ul><ul><li>400 miles prior – rapidly decreasing </li></ul><ul><li>visibilities and ceilings. Rain begins shortly. </li></ul><ul><li>200 miles prior – ceiling too low for VFR </li></ul><ul><li>flight and visibilities lowered to almost zero. </li></ul><ul><li>As the front is approached there is a gradual temperature increase and an increase in dew point, and atmospheric pressure would lessen </li></ul>
  36. 52. <ul><li>Beginning the flight in the warm air mass, sky likely overcast, stratocumulus clouds, smooth air, and relatively low ceilings and visibilities until the flight was approaching the front </li></ul><ul><li>If flight continues into the frontal area, a few altostratus clouds and a dark layer of nimbostratus (rain clouds) would likely be seen </li></ul><ul><li>Gusty wind and wind shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of squalls and cumulonimbus clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too high to fly over, unsafe below them, and nearly impossible to fly through them </li></ul></ul>
  37. 53. <ul><li>The worst weather for a pilot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of the warm front and cold front conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As it approaches , the warm front conditions are prevalent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowering ceilings, lowering visibilities, and precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followed almost immediately by cold front conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squalls, turbulence, and thunderstorms </li></ul></ul>
  38. 54. <ul><li>The cumulonimbus cloud – thunderhead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce strong updrafts, large raindrops, hail, lightning, thunder, downdrafts, and strong turbulence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May exceed 50,000 ft in height </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulus stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updrafts and growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mature stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up and downdrafts produce gusty surface winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation begins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissipating stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downdrafts </li></ul></ul>
  39. 56. <ul><li>Air mass thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often result from surface heating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to self-destruct (downdrafts with rain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20-90 min. life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steady state thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with a weather system but may be intensified by afternoon heating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can last for hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically, in its mature stage, the top of the cloud begins to flatten to an anvil shape and point in the direction the cloud is moving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong updrafts at the leading edge of the cloud </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within and directly beneath are updrafts and downdrafts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rear generates strong downdrafts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 57. <ul><li>Freezing rain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercooled water droplets adhere rapidly on the surface of the aircraft and the windshield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can obscure vision – reverse flight path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Icing (other than freezing rain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only occurs in the clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no reason for the VFR pilot to be in this situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground fog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can form rapidly with the right conditions – especially dangerous for takeoff and landing </li></ul></ul>
  41. 58. <ul><li>Fog can form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By cooling air to its dew point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beware when the temperature/dew point spread is within 3 degrees of each other – as night approaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding moisture to the air near the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frost on the wings can cause the aircraft to stall at a higher speed than normal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frost can disrupt the smooth flow of air over the wing’s surface – do not fly with frost on lifting surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear air turbulence occurs outside of clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jet stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large thunderstorms – cumulonimbus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain waves </li></ul></ul>
  42. 59. <ul><li>Surface Analysis Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Depiction Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Low-Level Prognostic Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Area Forecasts (FA) </li></ul><ul><li>TAFs </li></ul><ul><li>METARs </li></ul><ul><li>Wind and Temperature Aloft (FB) </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining a Weather Briefing FSS/DUAT </li></ul><ul><li>Standard/Abbreviated/Outlook Briefings </li></ul><ul><li>AWOS/ASOS/AWSS reports </li></ul>
  43. 63. <ul><li>Zulu time </li></ul><ul><li>Greenwich mean time </li></ul><ul><li>24hr clock </li></ul><ul><li>A standard reference to eliminate time-zone confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Standard time to UTC </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern + 5 hr = UTC </li></ul><ul><li>Central + 6 hr = UTC </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain + 7 hr = UTC </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific + 8 hr = UTC </li></ul><ul><li>Alaskan + 9 hr = UTC </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii + 10 hr = UTC </li></ul>
  45. 65. <ul><li>Terminal aerodrome forecast </li></ul><ul><li>Weather forecast for selected airports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TAF – routine forecast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TAF AMD – amended forecast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issued four times daily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issued at 0000,0600,1200, 1800 (UTC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid for 24 or 30 hours, depending on station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is some overlap between forecasts </li></ul></ul>
  46. 66. <ul><li>TAF AMD YSBK 241854Z 2008 VRB03KT CAVOK FM23 02010KT 9999 SCT040 BKN100 PROB30 2023 2000 MIST INTER 0608 7000 LIGHT SHOWERS OF RAIN BKN020 T 17 21 19 15 Q 1016 1014 1013 1013 </li></ul>
  47. 67. <ul><li>Example METAR YSBK 0230Z 31008KT //// 19/04 Q1015 RMK RF00.1/012.0 CLD:SCT025 VIS:9999 </li></ul><ul><li>Aviation routine weather report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use abbreviations similar to TAF’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Report of condition at time of observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METAR = regular hourly report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPECI = special report necessitated by rapidly changing weather conditions </li></ul></ul>
  48. 68. <ul><li>DATA BASED ON 010000Z </li></ul><ul><li>VALID 010600Z FOR USE 0500-0900Z TEMP NEG ABOVE 24000 </li></ul><ul><li>FT 3000 6000 9000 </li></ul><ul><li>MKC 2426 2726-09 2826-14 </li></ul><ul><li>ABQ 1912+15 </li></ul>
  49. 69. <ul><li>Winds aloft are forecast for specific </li></ul><ul><li>locations in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Four-digit group used to represent wind direction and speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2525 = from 250 at 25kts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0315 = from 030 at 15kts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six-digit group is wind and temperature aloft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>353515 = 350degrees at 35kts, temp = 15c </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wind speed over 100kts, forecaster adds 50 to direction and subtracts 100 from the speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7302-49 = 230 at106kts, temp -49c </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Winds less than 5kts is coded as 9900 </li></ul>
  50. 70. <ul><li>Report given to FSS by pilots in flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a source of real-time information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone reports everything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In really bad weather, no one else has been a trailblazer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of report can be a factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicability depends of aircraft type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PIREPS are encouraged if unexpected weather is encountered </li></ul><ul><li>UA/OV KMRB-KPIT/TM 1600/FL100/TP BE55/SK BKN024-TOP032/BKN-OVC043-TOPUNKN/TA M12/IC LGT-MOD RIME 055-080 </li></ul>
  51. 71. <ul><li>Call 1-800 WX-BRIEF </li></ul><ul><li>When calling make sure the briefer knows </li></ul><ul><li>you are a pilot (student pilot) </li></ul><ul><li>Intended route (or “local”) </li></ul><ul><li>Departure/destination airports </li></ul><ul><li>VFR/IFR </li></ul><ul><li>Type of aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Departure time (UTC) and time enroute </li></ul>
  52. 72. <ul><li>Standard is given in following order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any bad weather happening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the big picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are the highs, lows, and front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the current conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s forecast for the near future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any needed data re: airport closures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outlook briefing – more than 6 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviated briefing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement available info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update a previous briefing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out specific info </li></ul></ul>
  53. 73. <ul><li>Self briefing sources </li></ul><ul><li>DUATS – direct user access terminal </li></ul><ul><ul><li> or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free service supported by FAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Official weather briefings via computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Account available to anyone with valid medical or pilot certificate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer briefing services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DTN, WSI, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web based briefings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://aviation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> . Com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution: computer based sources other than DUATS may not be considered an official briefing </li></ul></ul>
  54. 74. <ul><li>Weather reporting systems which may be used for the creation of a METAR or recorded audio report of existing weather </li></ul><ul><li>Automated weather observing system (AWOS) </li></ul><ul><li>Automated surface observation system (ASOS) </li></ul><ul><li>Automated weather sensor system (AWSS) </li></ul>
  55. 75. <ul><li>Radar Wx Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Wx Reoperts and Forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>AIRMETs </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMETs / Convective SIGMETs </li></ul><ul><li>NOTAMs </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Shear Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Shear Recognition and Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Related Aeronautical Decision Making and Judgment </li></ul>
  56. 76. <ul><li>AWOS-A reports altimeter setting </li></ul><ul><li>AWOS-1 reports altimeter, wind, temperature, dew point, and density altitud e </li></ul><ul><li>AWOS-2 provides info from AWOS-1 + visibility </li></ul><ul><li>AWOS-3 provides info from AWOS-2 +cloud/ceiling data </li></ul><ul><li>ASOS provides the info of at least AWOS-3 </li></ul><ul><li>AWSS is a follow-on program that provides identical data as ASOS </li></ul>
  57. 77. <ul><li>Radar weather report (SD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text report regarding areas of precipitation appearing on radar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates the type, intensity, location, movement, and height of the echo top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All heights are reported above sea level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also referred to as RAREPs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radar summary charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts displaying a collection on radar reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows tops of clouds, direction of movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity indicated by contours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report combines 6 levels to produce 3 contours </li></ul></ul>
  58. 78. <ul><li>Convective outlook (AC) </li></ul><ul><li>National forecast of thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Flight planning tool to avoid thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Three forecasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 1 convective outlook (first 24hrs) issues at 0600z,1300z,1630z,2000z, an 0100z </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 2 convective outlook (next 24hrs) issued at 0830z (ST)/0730z (DT) update at 1730z </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 3 convective outlook (next 24hrs) issued from day 3 at 1200z to day 4 at 1200z </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define areas of risk for severe and general (non-severe) thunderstorms </li></ul>
  59. 79. <ul><li>Winds equal to or greater than 50kts at the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Hail equal to or greater than ¾ inch in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>tornadoes </li></ul>
  60. 80. <ul><li>Severe weather watch bulletin (WW) </li></ul><ul><li>Define areas of possible severe thunderstorm or tornado activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A severe watch describes areas where the threat of tornadoes exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unscheduled and issued as required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary notification of a watch called the alert weather watch bulletin (AWW) is sent before the WW to alert necessary personnel </li></ul>
  61. 81. <ul><li>Airmen’s meteorological information </li></ul><ul><li>Issued to warn of weather hazards to small aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate icing </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate turbulence </li></ul><ul><li>IFR conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained surface winds of more than 30kts </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive mountain obscuration </li></ul>
  62. 82. <ul><li>Significant meteorological conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issued for weather to ALL aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe turbulence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe icing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust storms, sand storms, or volcanic ash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convective SIGMETs </li></ul><ul><li>Tornadoes </li></ul><ul><li>Lines of thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Severe turbulence </li></ul><ul><li>Severe icing </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded thunderstorms </li></ul>
  63. 83. <ul><li>NOTAM (D) – distance NOTAMs </li></ul><ul><li>Affect cross-country pilots and local airport users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed airports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation aids off the air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass cutting operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxiways closed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOTAM (FDC) – Flight data center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in regulations or charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency flight restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National airspace closure information (911) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide-spread traffic delays or closures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pointer NOTAMs – highlight another NOTAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist users in cross-referencing important information that may not be found under an airport or NAVAID identifier </li></ul></ul>
  64. 84. <ul><li>Wind shear is a change in wind speed and/or direction in a short distance resulting in a tearing or shearing effect </li></ul><ul><li>Report the loss or gain of airspeed and the altitude at which it was encountered </li></ul><ul><li>Pilots should promptly volunteer report to controllers of wind shear conditions encountered </li></ul><ul><li>A Controller may issue a wind shear alert based upon information derived from equipment in the control tower </li></ul>
  65. 85. <ul><li>Wind shear can exist in a horizontal or vertical direction and occasionally in both </li></ul><ul><li>Shows up as a momentary change in airspeed or altitude (or rate of altitude change) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be very dangerous at low altitudes </li></ul></ul>
  66. 86. <ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the problem and consider going elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Understand conditions conducive to development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convective storms (thunderstorms, rain/snow showers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fronts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong surface winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable (turbulent) air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong winds on top of a temperature inversion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listen for reports from other pilots or ATC </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for confliction wind indications </li></ul>
  67. 87. <ul><li>The best place to make weather related decisions is on the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early - instructor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later – student </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop alternative plans for unforecast weather before a decision becomes critical </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t delay using your alternate plan </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt err on the conservative side </li></ul>
  68. 88. <ul><li>Emergency procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aviate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fly the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Review and follow the checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilize the problem to the extent possible </li></ul><ul><li>Land as required </li></ul>
  69. 89. <ul><li>14 CFR Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>14 CFR Part 61 Recreational/Student Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>14 CFR 61 Private/Students Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>14 CFR Part 67 </li></ul><ul><li>14 CFR Part 91 </li></ul><ul><li>14 CFR Part 141 </li></ul><ul><li>NTSB 830 </li></ul><ul><li>AIM </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Logbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft Logbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Test Standards </li></ul><ul><li>FAA Advisory Circulars </li></ul><ul><li>Aeronautical Decision Making and Judgment  </li></ul>