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Cropsmith Jenners 45 Feb 08

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Cropsmith Jenners 45 Feb 08

  1. 1. Managing N using The Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test Tim Smith Cropsmith Inc. Nitrogen Testing, Consulting
  2. 2. Don’t be mislead focus on what is important
  3. 3. Why all the interest in nitrogen? <ul><li>For Nitrogen Rates 140 lbs to 220 lbs </li></ul><ul><li>140-220 lbs NH3 spring 08 $60.20-94.60 </li></ul><ul><li>140-220 lbs 28% Solution Spring $84.00-132.00 </li></ul><ul><li>For each 10 lbs of NH3 saved $4.50 </li></ul><ul><li>For each 10 lbs of 28% saved $6.00 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Year of University Research Shows <ul><li>60-90% of Crop N comes from soil </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer needed to supplement soil N typically ranges from 80 to 220 lbs of N </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Rate Nitrogen is about redistribution of N from where less is need to where more is needed. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How much N do you need? Yield 126 Yield 227 0 N Rate 210lb N On-Farm trial Champaign County Illinois 2003
  6. 6. How little N do you need? Yield 177 Yield 193 On-Farm trial Champaign County Illinois 2003 0 N Rate 210lb PY Rate 192 lbs N At today's NH3 prices each bushel gain cost $5.16 in N
  7. 7. Corn yield at the zero-N rate as a percent of yield at EONR. 80 75 Wisconsin 76 60 Minnesota 75 45 Iowa 64 54 Illinois ---------- % ----------- Soybean Corn State Previous Crop
  8. 8. Economic Optimum Nitrogen Rate <ul><li>EON is the rate of applied N where the last dollar of your N cost returns more slightly more than a dollars worth of grain. With more N than the economic rate you may get more yield but you will earn less money. </li></ul>IPNI Crop Nutrient Response tool <ul><li>How can you determine Economic Optimum N Rate? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example of Nitrogen Response Trial 200 80 120 40 0 0 160 200 120 80 120 40 80 160 0 160 40 200
  10. 10. The Closer to the Economic N Rate the more money you make Within $8 of best N rate $26.70 from best N rate Cropsmith Recommendation University Recommendations
  11. 11. Why Soil Based N Management? <ul><li>If soils differ in there response to N, them so should our management of them. </li></ul><ul><li>The soil supplies a majority of the nitrogen that plants take up during growing season. </li></ul><ul><li>Other solutions (such as Greenseeker) exist but may have limited acceptance due to logistics. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What is the Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test? <ul><li>This New test Developed at the University of Illinois measures potentially available nitrogen that is released from the organic matter in the soil </li></ul>
  13. 13. What kind of nitrogen release do your soils have? IPNI-Crop Nutrient response tool EON 130 lbs N EON 180 lbs N Both fields yielded 200 bushels
  14. 14. Is the Economic N Rate Stabile Year to Year? Jack Meisinger InfoAg presentation 2007
  15. 15. ISNT Soil Test Map
  16. 16. Cropsmith Variable Rate Application Map
  17. 17. Results from 2007 ISNT 175-225 ISNT 270-304 Corn $3.35 Fert. N $.50 MRTN Recommendation 147lbs N
  18. 18. 2007 ISNT Values
  19. 19. 2007 ISNT Nitrogen Recommendations
  20. 20. 2007 Results ISNT 175-225 ISNT 270-304 Corn $3.35 Fert. N $.50 MRTN Recommendation 147lbs N
  21. 21. How much N do you need? Soil Test ISNT 192 PPM Experimental Best N Rate 180 lbs Yield 126 Yield 227 0 N Rate 210lb N Rate Cropsmith Recommendation 169 lbs N On-Farm trial Champaign County Illinois 2003
  22. 22. How little N do you need? Yield 177 Yield 193 On-Farm trial Champaign County Illinois 2003 Soil Test ISNT 225 PPM Experimental Best N Rate 126 Cropsmith Recommendation 147 lbs N
  23. 23. 58 Plots in Illinois from three years <ul><li>For every .45 lb of N increase, Yield increases 1 bushel </li></ul><ul><li>For every 350 plant increase, Yield increases 1 bushel </li></ul><ul><li>(.45 * lbs of N )+ (.0035 * population) = Yield </li></ul><ul><li>. 45* 188# N+ .0035*31236 plants = 192 bu/A </li></ul><ul><li>Actual yield 188 bu/a </li></ul>
  24. 24. Why haven’t nitrogen soil tests worked? <ul><li>Past soil test have measured Nitrates which are not stable in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>ISNT measure the part of organic matter with is one source of nitrate in the soil. </li></ul>Fertilizer N Organic Matter
  25. 25. Or maybe old ones
  26. 26. Sources of N to Plants Fertilizer N – Less Efficient Organic Soil N – More Efficient 200 bu Corn 150 bu Corn
  27. 27. How much N does your corn crop need ? 200 lbs corn <ul><li>Corn takes up 1.1 lb of N per bushel yield </li></ul><ul><li>Corn removes from field only .68 lbs N per bu. </li></ul><ul><li>200 bushel would take up 220 lbs of N </li></ul><ul><li>200 bu corn would remove 136 lbs of N </li></ul><ul><li>75% of N comes from soil (organic N) </li></ul><ul><li>Applied N is only 40% efficient </li></ul><ul><li>220 lbs N needed 165 from soil 55 needed from Fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>137 lbs of Fertilizer N needed </li></ul><ul><li>83 lbs of N in corn stover left to be recycled ( organic N) </li></ul>
  28. 28. How much N does your corn crop need ? 150 bu Corn <ul><li>Corn takes up 1.1 lb of N per bushel yield </li></ul><ul><li>Corn removes from field only .68 lbs N per bu. </li></ul><ul><li>150 bushel would take up 165 lbs of N </li></ul><ul><li>150 bu corn would remove 102 lbs of N </li></ul><ul><li>50% of N comes from soil (organic N) </li></ul><ul><li>Applied N is only 40% efficient </li></ul><ul><li>165 lbs N needed 82 from soil 82 needed from Fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>205 lbs of Fertilizer N needed </li></ul><ul><li>63 lbs of N in corn stover left to be recycled (organic N) </li></ul>
  29. 29. N cycle 50-90% 10-50%
  30. 30. Top Ten Important Nitrogen Factors <ul><li>Amount of N from soil </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation-amount, type of residue from previous crop </li></ul><ul><li>Population of current crop </li></ul><ul><li>Weather (moisture, temp, timing) </li></ul><ul><li>Source and timing of N </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid response to N </li></ul><ul><li>Past N applications (especially from manure) </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>pH and nutrient levels Nutrient interactions P, K and S </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of N, Price of Crop </li></ul>
  31. 31. 17 Sites Indiana Purdue (Camberato, Nielsen)
  32. 32. Corn after Soybeans 2005 190 Acre field in McLean County (C.U. Williams Farm) Average yield 189 bu. Ave.135 lbs of N Yield 189 Bushel
  33. 34. Average N Rate 146# N
  34. 35. Soil is more efficient at delivering N to plants U of I C.U. Williams Field 2006 Ave yield 191.3 bu.
  35. 36. <ul><li>Green test strips 165 lbs N </li></ul><ul><li>Increased N in test strips marginally increased yield in some places </li></ul>
  36. 37. How and when to sample <ul><li>We sample 0-12 an 12-24 inches deep </li></ul><ul><li>Sample can be taken Fall, Winter, Early Spring </li></ul><ul><li>Maps can be used for 6-8 years </li></ul><ul><li>Sample have some special handling requirements </li></ul>
  37. 38. Cost of Nitrogen Soil Testing <ul><li>We have complete programs from $8.30 to $15 per acre </li></ul><ul><li>For $8.30 you get whole field N rates with two zones per field </li></ul><ul><li>$15 includes intensive sampling 0-12 and 12-24 inch at all sample sites and complete variable rate recommendations </li></ul>
  38. 39. Conclusions <ul><li>Having an ISNT map of your field can save money maintain high yield for many years </li></ul><ul><li>Cropsmith Inc </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Smith </li></ul><ul><li>(217) 621-6117 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.cropsmith.com </li></ul>
  39. 40. Fall 2007 results
  40. 41. 175 N 192
  41. 42. 155 N 225
  42. 43. What kind of nitrogen response does your soils have? Southern Illinois Economic N Rate 192 ISNT 95 Central Illinois Economic N Rate 124 ISNT 265
  43. 44. Nafziger 2006 MRTN 3 Outliers Removed one each , Rotation, Variability, Flooded field CC North CSB North CC Central CSB South CSB Central

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