Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ancient Old Kingdom


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Interesting, a lot of good information. However much of it seems to be slightly out of context, the descriptions of religion and famine especially so. Both went into quite a bit of detail but didn't really convey the broad idea of what they were saying.

    Also there seemed to be some problems with formating, certain slides were hard to read and inconsistent with the rest of the presentation.

    The presentation was still very informative though!
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Ancient Old Kingdom

  1. 1. Egypt’s Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period: The Age of the Pyramids Caroline Fleischauer, Rebecca Jakubson, Casey Rolfe, Max Taylor-Milner
  2. 2. Time Period: Old Kingdom Around 2650-2134 BCE 3rd Dynasty to 6th Dynasty King Djoser built first pyramid, step pyramid All pyramids built Internal security and prosperity
  3. 3. Time Period: First Intermediate Period 2181-2055 BCE “dark period” 7th dynasty to 11th dynasty Two competing power bases: Thebes in Upper Egypt and Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt Pillaging and violation of temples and artwork
  4. 4. The fall of the old kingdom Many scholars attribute the fall of the old kingdom to Pepi II’s long reign (over 90 years), though recent discoveries show that in fact it was due to global cooling.
  5. 5. Global cooling (opposite of global warming) lowered water levels and resulted in lower annual flooding from the Nile Since the Egyptians relied on the annual floods to fertilize their fields this meant a famine.
  6. 6. This famine lasted decades throughout which people ate their own children and violated the noble’s graves in search of food.
  7. 7. Pepi II’s son Merenre Nemtyemsaf II (Pepi II’s son) ruled just over a year before being assassinated during this period of civil disorder, which was so great that the people questioned whether the pharos where truly loved by the gods.
  8. 8. Greek myth? Though there is no proof Merenre Nemtyemsaf II’s sister, after seeing her brother killed, invited the bandits to a feast in the basement of the palace. She than used a hidden passageway to the Nile to flood the chamber killing the bandits.
  9. 9. Than fearing their comrade's vengeance she cast herself into a room of embers.
  10. 10. Relationships to Surrounding Peoples Traded with Canaan (Israel and Sinai); stone and clay vessels found at both sites Egyptians most likely inhabited Canaan, as 90% of ceramics found Egyptian Distinctive metal ax found in Egyptian tombs Traded with Nubians Vases bearing hieroglyphics found at Byblos Internal conflict; Upper vs. Lower Egypt
  11. 11. Architecture in Ancient Egypt First developed around 4000 B.C. Mastabas (long, low stone tombs) were the ancestors to pyramids Pyramids began in the 3rd Dynasty with the Step Pyramid of Djoser The Bent Pyramid attempted to make a true pyramid with smooth sides but the angle was too steep and the architects were forced to finish building at a smaller angle The Red Pyramid was the first true pyramid with casing and uniform sides The Pyramids of Giza are the largest, most recognized pyramids in Egypt and are protected by the Sphinx a statue of a deity with the head of a pharoh and the body of a lion
  12. 12. Bent Pyramid Step Pyramid Red Pyramid Pyramids of Giza
  13. 13. Art in Ancient Egypt Great use of symbolism to convey meaning People shown often had combined human/animal characteristics The technique of frontalism (always showing a subject from the front) was used in paintings and most scenes showed military or religious events or daily life of the Egyptians Pottery was widely made for both every day and religious purposes Statues were often included in temples and tombs as symbols of divinity Obelisks were built in pairs to the Sun God Ra as symbols of protection Jewelry was made from a variety of materials from clay to gold and was thought as a form of protection Elaborate masks were made to protect mummies
  14. 14. Painting of Egyptian Egyptian Farming Pottery Egypt Funerary Mask
  15. 15. The Economy In Ancient Egypt There was a planned economy ruled by administrators who organized the economy. The administration was represented on the state and local levels. Some of their jobs were to manage resources, ensure the flow of supplies and materials, collecting taxes (in the form of produce and crops), stored and redistributed crops from farmers, and the administration of public works (aka coordination the construction of the pyramids) The domestic and trading markets consisted of surplus crops after taxation
  16. 16. Sources of Wealth in Ancient Egypt The sources of wealth during this time period were: Agriculture:accounts for most of the wealth in Egypt. Consists of raising grain, vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs, etc -the fertile soil from the Nile flooding made for good agriculture Manufacturing: on a small scale Successful occupations of other countries Importation of wood: because it was a scarce commodity in Egypt, therefore they trades with Byblos for wood Trading: slaves, luxury goods and gems, animals and animal products, produce, and many other items
  17. 17. Trade Relations in Ancient Egypt Most trading was in the hands of merchants that worked for the pharaoh During the 4th Dynasty the Egyptians established a military and merchant holding in Nubia. They were interested in Nubia because of its gold mines and its overland routes to Kush and Punt They traded with Canaan and Syria because they were such important crossroads for Egyptian royal trade for items like Serekh signs, etc They also had minimal contact with Mesopotamia The Egyptians usually had better trading deals since they exerted substantial influence in their area
  18. 18. Early Religion At the beginning of the Old Kingdom, there was no nationally unified cosmology Each king to come into power brought with him the patron god of his city of origin Efforts on the part of the priesthood resulted in the development of two religious systems, one in the North of the Nile delta,the other in the South.
  19. 19. Divided Religious Viewpoints in the Old Kingdom Memphis: the Cult Heliopolis: the Cult of Ptah of Re-Amun Memphis was a city Heliopolis was in the South delta located in the North Center of the of the Nile delta creator God Ptah center of worship for the sun-god,Re- Amun
  20. 20. Memphis and Ptah Ptah was the deification of the primeval mound, which was the creation of the world He “dreamt creation in his heart” Held symbols of life, power, and stability
  21. 21. Creation in the Ptah Theology Ptah created universe with heart and tongue Ancient Egyptians saw the heart as the center of thought instead of the brain By creating the world through the naming of things, Ptah represented a synthesis of the mental and physical world
  22. 22. Heliopolis and Re-Atum Heliopolis and Memphis differed over origin of creation, and which god created whom Heliopolis maintained that Ptah was created by Re-Atum, not he other way around
  23. 23. The Creation Myth of Re-Atum Atum created himself from the primeval chaos, the built a pyramid-shaped mound, called the Benben, to stand on While standing on this, he separated the universe into dark and light, order an chaos Because the Benben was the first place the rays of the sun touched, Atum was regarded as a sun god
  24. 24. scources http://www.nemo. nu/ibisportal/0egyptintro/4egypt/index.htm uk/history/ancient/egyptians/apocalypse_ egypt_01.shtml
  25. 25. Works Cited 7946_1966_num_43_3_5872