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Motivation presentation


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Motivation presentation

  1. 1. Motivation
  2. 2. Perspectives of Motivation Behavioral Perspective Humanistic Perspective Cognitive Perspective •Rewards and punishments are the keys in determining an individual’s motivation. •Incentives – positive or negative stimuli or events that can motivate a student’s behavior. •Individual’s capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose their destiny, and positive qualities. •Abrahan Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Individual’s needs must be satisfied in the following sequence •Student’s thoughts guide their motivation: beliefs that individuals can control their environment as well as the importance of goal setting, planning and monitoring. •People are motivated to deal effectively with their environment, to master their world, and to process information efficiently.
  3. 3. A. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Intrinsic •External incentives such as rewards and punishment •Internal factors such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort.
  4. 4. B. Self-determination and Personal Change • Individuals want to believe that that they are doing something because of their own will, not because of external success or rewards.
  5. 5. C. Optimal Experiences and Flow • Optimal experiences involve feelings of deep enjoyment and happiness (Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). • Flow – optimal experiences in life. Flow occurs most often when people develop a sense of mastery and are absorbed in a state of concentration while they engage in an activity.
  6. 6. D. Effects of Rewards • Incentive to engage in task • Convey information about mastery
  7. 7. E. Developmental changes • Intrinsic motivation decreases from elementary to high school • The needs of young adolescents produce increasingly negative self- evaluations and attitudes towards school.
  8. 8. F. Attribution • Individuals are motivated to determine the underlying causes of their own performance or behavior.
  9. 9. G. Achievement Motivation •Mastery Orientation – focus on the task rather than on their ability, have positive affect, and generate solution oriented strategies that improve their performance. •Helpless orientation (task avoidance orientation) – focus on their personal inadequacies, often attributes their difficulty to a lack of ability, and display negative affect. This behavior undermines their performance. •Performance orientation – being concerned with outcome rather than with process. Winning is what matters and happiness is thought to be a result of winning.
  10. 10. H. Self-efficacy • The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
  11. 11. I. Self-regulation • Self-generation of thoughts, feelings and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to attain goals.
  12. 12. Motivational Generalization Design Principle 1. Adaptive self- efficacy and competence beliefs motivate students •Provide clear and accurate feedback regarding competence and self-efficacy, focusing on the development of competence, expertise, and skill. •Design tasks that offer opportunities to be successful but also challenge students 2. Adaptive attributions and control beliefs motivate students •Provide feedback that stresses process nature of learning, including importance of effort, strategies and potential self-control of learning. •Provide opportunities to exercise some choice and control •Build supportive and caring personal relationship in the community of learners in the classroom.
  13. 13. Motivational Generalization Design Principle 3. Higher levels of interest and intrinsic motivation motivate students •Provide stimulating and interesting tasks, activities, and materials, including some novelty and variety in tasks and activities. •Provide content material and tasks that are personally meaningful and interesting to students. •Display and model interest and involvement in the content and activities. 4. Higher levels of value motivate students •Provide tasks, material, and activities that are relevant and useful to students, allowing for some personal identification with school. •Classroom discourse should focus on importance and utility of content and activities.
  14. 14. Motivational Generalization Design Principle 5. Goals motivate and direct students •Use organizational and management structures that encourage personal and social responsibility that provide a safe, comfortable, and predictable environment. •Use cooperative and collaborative groups to allow for opportunities to attain both social and academic goals. •Classroom discourse should focus on mastery, learning, and understanding course and lesson content. •Use task, reward, and evaluation structures that promote mastery, learning, effort, progress, and self-improvement standards and less reliance on social comparison or norm-reference standards.