Monitoring Evaluation – relation to *Program
management within an organization.
Evaluative objective – provides info to ensure that
programs are working and they contribute to success
Monitoring Form- associated with the allocation of the
M& E is part of the total quality management and quality
Quality assurance is motivated by the need for
governments to be seen to deliver high quality services.
Summary of Monitoring
Evaluation (Form D)
Orientation Assessing Program processes and outcomes, for fine-
tuning and to account for Program resources
Typical Issues • Is the program reaching the target population?
• Is implementation meeting program objectives and benchmarks?
• How is implementation going between sites?
• ….compared with a month ago?
• How can we finetune this Program to make it more efficient?
• …to make it more effective?
• Is there a Program site which needs more attention to ensure more
State of program Settled. Program plan is in place
Major focus Delivery and outcomes
Timing (vis-à-vis) Program delivery During delivery
Key Approaches Component Analysis
Devolved performance assessment
Assembly of evidence Meaningful use of valid performance measures
• Quantitative indicators
Key Approaches to
Component Analysis - Senior management select a
component of the Program for systematic analysis
Devolved performance assessment- Senior
management encourage all components of a
Program to assess their performance on a regular
Systems Analysis – A program which is centrally
specified and disseminated for implementation to a
large number of sites.
Senior management select a component of the Program
Assess that component in terms of its own objectives and
overall goals of the Program
The selection of the component is made on the grounds of
Key Assumptions: Senior Management
Has sufficient overview of the organisation
Has the power to direct the evaluation unit to address the
Is a major audience for the evaluation findings
Senior management encourages all components of a
Program to assess their performance on a regular
Senior management receives these reports and,
using appropriate criteria, makes judgments on the
contribution of each component
Senior management provides guidelines, resources,
and principles for judging
Applies to program which is centrally specified and disseminated for
implementation to a large number of sites.
Program specification includes important goals.
Guidelines are provided for field staff; Field staff have little or no say in
Program specification or implementation plans.
a set of important outcomes to be defined and made operational.
Using a centralized evaluation unit
Relating differences in attainment of the outcomes
Key Evaluation Questions
Is the program reaching the target population?
Is it being implemented in the ways specified
Ia it effective
How much does it cost?
What are the costs relative to its effectiveness
Trends and Case Examples
Evaluands in program monitoring
Focus is evaluation within big “P” Programs which are ongoing.
Private sector- Ex: Training and development Program of a large regional bank
Public sector – Intellectual Disabilities Services Program
Contain mission statements
Designed to translate aspects of policy into tangible outcomes
Centrally planned or financed
Prime responsibility of Senior management
Ongoing, subject to modification
Elements of Program
A strategic plan for the implementation of relevant aspects of
Strategic planning – the process by which an organisation creates
a vision of its future and develops the necessary
structure, resources, procedures and operations to achieve that
A program structure
The use of the MIS
MIS used as a basis for decisions
The use of MIS when considering fundamental issues
Large P Program
1. There is a strong emphasis on outcomes.
2. Programs are ongoing and there is a need for evaluative
information over time.
3. Many Programs are designed to provide goods or
services rather than promote changes in behaviour
4. Evaluative data are often processed and reported in
simple but logical ways.
5. Senior management, inparticular, may require gross or
Assembling Evidence for
Essential to use full range of data collection and
Indicators need to be at least part of the data
Indicators as Evidence
Key feature of indicators – used continually to inform
decisions designed to alter the state of the social system
Can be used as statements about the effectiveness of
Must be used in: comparing Program trends at different
points in time (Monitoring)
To compare the performance of a Program to an
acceptable set of standards or goals.
To compare the implementation of the same Program at
different sites or locations
Types of indicators
Appropriateness – match between current
community and government priorities and Program
Efficiency –the relative cost of achieving positive
impacts via the program under consideration
Effectiveness – match between Program outcomes
and Program objectives
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an integral part of
education programme planning and implementation.
The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable
Development (DESD, 2005-2014) is an endeavor that
aims to reorient education policy, practice and
investment to address sustainability.
This publication endeavors to identify which commonly
accepted learning processes are aligned with ESD and
should be promoted through ESD-related programmes
and activities. It also seeks to examine which learning
opportunities contribute to sustainable development.
The United Nations Decade in Education for Sustainable
Development (DESD, 2005-2014) is a global movement
which seeks to transform education policy, investment
and practice. If it is successful, the DESD could change
not only education but also the quality of life for many
people across the globe.
i) Which commonly accepted learning processes are
aligned with ESD and should be promoted through ESD
ii) What are ESD and related learning opportunities
contributing to sustainable development?
ESD learning frameworks
The review has identified that certain key processes
underpin ESD frameworks and practices. These include:
< processes of collaboration and dialogue (including multi-
stakeholder and intercultural dialogue);
< processes which engage the „whole system‟;
< processes which innovate curriculum as well as teaching
< processes of active and participatory learning.
Learning for ESD defined
Learning‟ for ESD refers to what has been learnt and is learned by
those engaged in ESD, including learners, facilitators, coordinators as
well as funders. Often learning is interpreted as the gaining of
knowledge, values and theories related to sustainable development
but, as this review indicates, that ESD learning also refers to:
< learning to ask critical questions;
< learning to clarify one‟s own values;
< learning to envision more positive and sustainable futures;
< learning to think systemically;
< learning to respond through applied learning; and,
< learning to explore the dialectic between tradition and innovation.
Critical Lesson through the
It is difficult to access data on ESD processes and learning
opportunities as these are rarely documented
There is a noticeable lack of data to show how these objectives
and outcomes are achieved.
This relatively new field is only at the very earliest stages of
generating the type of comparative and evaluative overview that
provides a picture of effective processes and approaches.
The study recommends that during Phase II
i) data collection processes focus on actual experiences rather than
reviews of the literature; and
ii) data collection tools are based on tightly- focused questions
that will capture greater detail about learning processes
What is the extent and the depth of connection between
the choice of processes in ESD initiatives and actual
contributions to sustainable development?
the level of evaluative assessment within the literature is
in its infancy,
the outcomes themselves are so varied and feature at
external review of case study findings, anecdotal
evidence from individual programme evaluations and
the reflections of programme leaders seems to suggest
that there are links that should be explored in more
Contribution to sustainable
this review presents a timely opportunity to consider the areas in which change is
The case studies reviewed in this document suggest that it is possible to map a wide
range of contributions through ESD
The review unpacks and categorizes the range of potential contributions and some
of the themes and priorities that are apparent across these key initiatives.
It has developed a template which could be adapted to serve as a data collation tool
ESD remains poorly researched and weakly evidenced.
This means there is not sufficient evidence to provide conclusive responses to the
core questions that drive the present review and other similar investigations into
the value of ESD as a field of research and practice.
These challenges will also confront the Phase II monitoring and evaluation report
as it attempts to provide robust and meaningful evidence of the impact of the DESD
initiative as a whole.