Interactive evaluation


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Interactive evaluation

  1. 1. Interactive Evaluation
  2. 2.  Ronald Havelock (1971) developed a set of innovation and change model  Problem Solving Model  It describes an organizational setting  Have the ability and inclination to deal with the problem.
  3. 3.  Participants play a major part in setting goals and in organizational and program delivery, and evaluation efforts are influenced strongly by those who are close to action.  The problem solving perspective is more on developing a culture of learning within organizations (Schei, 1985).
  4. 4.  This led to an interest in integrating evaluation into the day to day processes of organizations that adopt a commitment to systematic examination of what they do and how they might become more effective and efficient (Rowe & jacobs, 1996)
  5. 5. Interactive Evaluation is concerned with:  The provision of systematic evaluation findings through which local providers can make decisions about the future direction of their program.  Assistance in planning and carrying out self- evaluations
  6. 6.  Focusing on the evaluation on program change and improvement in most cases on a continuous basis  A perspective that evaluation can be at end in itself, as a means of empowering providers and participants.
  7. 7.  Interactive evaluation has a strong formative purpose.  Basic features of the interactive form:  A. Orientation - improvement of program B. Typical issues - What is this program trying to achieve?
  8. 8. - How is this service going? - Is the delivery working? - Is delivery consistent with the program plan? - How could delivery be changed to make it more effective? - How could this organization be changed to make it more effective?
  9. 9. C. State of program - subject to continuous review and improvement. D. Major Focus - major focus is on delivery but findings could influence changes in program plan and thus affect outcomes.
  10. 10. E. Timing - program delivery F. Key Approaches - Responsive - Action Research - Quality Review - Developmental - Empowerment
  11. 11. G. Assembly of evidence - observation and interview - data collection is systematic - conclusion
  12. 12. Key Approaches  Responsive Evaluation - Robert Stake (1980). An evaluation is responsive if: - it orients more directly to program activities than to program intents; - it responds to audience requirements for information;
  13. 13. - the different value perspectives of the people at hand are referred to in reporting the success and failure of the program. Stake approach in responsive evaluation it leads to enlightenment of stakeholders from which they can make decisions about program change.
  14. 14.  Action Research - As defined by Orton (1992) a collaborative research, centered in social practice, which follows a particular process, espouses the values of independence equality and cooperation and is intended to be a learning experience, to produce a change for the better in the practice and to add to social theory.
  15. 15.  Wadsworth (1991) views the process as cyclic one involving the following components:  Reflection on current action  Design  Fieldwork  Analysis and conclusions  Planning
  16. 16.  Kemmis (1985) describe action research as follows:  Develop a plan of action to improve what is already happening.  Act to implement the plan.  Observe the effects of action in the context of which it occurs.
  17. 17.  Reflect on these effects as a basis for further planning, subsequent action, through a succession on cycles.  Action research emphasizes the prospective.  In the context of organizational improvement, the current situation with a view to analyzing data on how this situation can be improved.
  18. 18.  Quality Review  Major proponents:  An organizational system provides guidelines for self-evaluation and improvement;  Effective agency-level development is enhanced by the implementation of these system-level guidelines to support local problem-solving;
  19. 19.  All agencies are expected to undertake such processes within a given time span.  This implies the need to develop a culture of evaluation whereby evaluation becomes a way of thinking which parameters every kind and level of daily action.
  20. 20.  Developmental evaluation  This involves evaluation processes including asking evaluation questions and applying evaluation logic, to support program, project, product and/or organizational development.
  21. 21.  According to Patton (1996) the primary function with the team is to elucidate team discussions with evaluative questions, data and logic, and to facilitate data based decision making in the developmental process.
  22. 22.  Empowerment Evaluation  Designed to create a folk culture of evaluation.  It is a mechanism used to create and drive a learning organization,  It is not mutually exclusive to more traditional impact evaluation undertaken by external evaluators.
  23. 23.  Can be fostered by experienced evaluators through the following; - training others to acquire evaluation skills - acting as facilitators to help others conduct evaluation - undertaking illuminative evaluations in conjunction with practitioners - acting as advocates for disadvantaged groups