Developing Affective Constructs Dr. Carlo Magno Counseling and Educational Psychology Department De La Salle University-Manila 1
Affective characteristics• Anderson (1981) explained affective characteristics as “qualities which presents people’s typical ways of feeling, or expressing their emotions” (p. 3).• Sta. Maria and Magno (2007) found that affective characteristics run on two dimensions: Intensity and direction.• Intensity refers to the strength of the characteristic expressed.• Direction of affect refers to the cause of the affect from object external factors to person factors. 2
Classifications of Affective Scales• Attitude. Learned predispositions to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object (Meece et al. 1982).• Attitude Towards Church Scale” by Thurstone and Chave (1929):1. I think the teaching of the church is altogether too superficial to have much social and significance.2. I feel the church services give me inspiration and help me to live up to my best during the following week. 4
Classifications of Affective Scales• Beliefs. Judgments and evaluations that we make about ourselves, about others, and about the world around us (Dilts, 1999).• Examples of belief statements:• “A quiet classroom is conducive to learning”• “Studying longer will improve a student’s score on the test”• “Grades encourage students to work harder”• Interests. "a liking/disliking state of mind accompanying the doing of an activity" (Strong, 1955, p. 138). 5
Classifications of Affective Scales• Values. “the principles and fundamental convictions which act as general guides to behavior, the standards by which particular actions are judged to be good or desirable (Halstead & Taylor, 2000, p. 169).• Dispositions are guided by beliefs and attitudes related to values such as caring, fairness, honesty, responsibility, and social justice. Examples of dispositions include fairness, being democratic, empathy, enthusiasm, thoughtfulness, and respectfulness. 6
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive Measures• Decide what information should be sought – (1) No scales are available to measure such construct – (2) All scales are foreign and it is not suitable for the stakeholders or sample that will take the measure – (3) Existing measures are not appropriate for the purpose of assessment – (4) The test developer intends to explore the underlying factors of a construct and eventually confirm it• Search for Content Domain: – Search for relevant literature reviews – Look for the appropriate definition – Explain the theory – Specify the underlying variables (deconstruction) 7
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive Measures• Write the first draft of items:• Items are created for each subscale as guided by the conceptual definition.• The number of items as planned in the Table of Specifications is also considered.• As much as possible, a large number of items are written to represent well the behavior being measured.• How to write Items: – Items are based on the definition of the subscales – Provide the manifestation of the construct – Descriptions from references – Conduct an open ended surveys, interview, FGD’s 10
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive MeasuresGood questionnaire items should:1. Include a vocabulary that is simple, direct, and familiar to all respondents2. Be clear and specific3. Not involve leading, loaded or double barreled questions4. Be as short as possible5. Include all conditional information prior to the key ideas6. Be edited for readability7. Generalizable for a large sample.8. Avoid time-bound situations. 11
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive Measures• Example of bad items:• I am satisfied with my wages and hours at the place where I work. (Double Barreled)• I not in favor congress passing a law not allowing any employer to force any employee to retire• at any age. (Double Negative)• Most people favor death penalty. What do you think? (Leading Question) 12
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive Measures• Select a scaling technique:• After writing the items, the test developer decides on the appropriate response format to be used in the scale.• The most common response formats used: – Lickert scale (measure of position in an opinion) – Verbal frequency scale (measure of a habit) – Ordinal scale (ordering of responses) – Linear numeric scale (judging a single dimension in an array)• Develop directions for responding:• Directions or instructions for the target respondents be created as early as when the items are created.• Clear and concise.• Respondents should be informed how to answer.• When you intend to have a separate answer sheet, make sure to inform the respondents about it in the instructions.• Instructions should also include ways of changing answers, how to answer (encircle, check, or shade).• Inform the respondents in the instructions specifically what they need to do. 13
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive Measures• Conduct a judgmental review of items• Have experts review your items. 14
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive Measures• Reexamine and revise the questionnaire• Prepare a draft and gather preliminary pilot data:• Requires a layout of the test for the respondents.• Make the scale as easy as possible to use.• Each item can be identified with a number or a letter to facilitate scoring of responses later.• The items should be structured for readability and recording responses.• Whenever possible items with the same response formats are placed together.• In designing self-administered scales, it is suggested to make it visually appealing to increase response rate.• Self-explanatory and the respondents can complete it in a short time.• Ordering of items: The first few questions set the tone for the rest of the items and determine how willingly and 15 conscientiously respondents will work on subsequent questions.
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive Measures• Analyze Pilot data:• The responses in the scale should be recorded using a spreadsheet.• The numerical responses are then analyzed.• The analysis consists of determining whether the test is reliable or valid.• Revise the Instrument:• The instrument is then revised because items with low factor loadings are removed• Items when removed will increase Cronbach’s alpha. 16
Steps in Constructing Non-Cognitive Measures• Gather final pilot data• A large sample is again selected which is three times the number of items.• Conduct Additional Validity and Reliability Analysis• The validity and reliability is again analyzed using the new pilot data.• Edit the questionnaire and specify the procedures for its use• Items with low factor loadings are again removed resulting to less items.• A new form of the test with reduced items will be formed.• Prepare the Test Manual• The test manual indicates the purpose of the test, instructions in administering, procedure for scoring, interpreting the scores 17 including the norms.