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# Assessing process and products

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### Assessing process and products

1. 1. ASSESSING PROCESS AND PRODUCTS: MATHEMATICS SKILLS Dr. Carlo Magno Associate Professor of Educational Psychology De La Salle University, Manila
2. 2. DEPED TAXONOMY • real-life application of understanding • enduring big ideas, principles, and generalizations inherent to the discipline • cognitive operations that the student performs • content of the curriculum, the facts and information that the student acquires Knowledge Process Product/PerformanceUnderstanding
3. 3. DETERMINE WHETHER: KNOWLEDGE, PROCESS, UNDERSTANDING, PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE 1. Students will describe quadratic function using graphs. 2. Solves quadratic equation by completing squares. 3. Solves problems involving quadratic equation. 4. Identify expressions with radicals 5. Prove the theorem on angle similarity using SAS similarity theorem. 6. Draw two objects to differentiate triangle similarity and triangle congruence. 7. Prove the theorem on a 5X5 square.
4. 4. 7. Determine the trigonometric ratio of special triangles 8. Creates a graph of an arithmetic sequence. 9. Give examples of polynomial functions 10. Draw a circle and illustrate 5 different chords. DETERMINE WHETHER: KNOWLEDGE, PROCESS, UNDERSTANDING, PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE
5. 5. DETERMINE WHETHER: KNOWLEDGE, PROCESS, UNDERSTANDING, PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE
6. 6. DETERMINE WHETHER: KNOWLEDGE, PROCESS, UNDERSTANDING, PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE
7. 7. DETERMINE WHETHER: KNOWLEDGE, PROCESS, UNDERSTANDING, PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE
8. 8. DETERMINE WHETHER: KNOWLEDGE, PROCESS, UNDERSTANDING, PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE
9. 9. DETERMINE WHETHER: KNOWLEDGE, PROCESS, UNDERSTANDING, PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE
10. 10. DETERMINE WHETHER: KNOWLEDGE, PROCESS, UNDERSTANDING, PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE
11. 11. ASSESSMENT COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS  Constructed by the AFT, NCME, NEA:  Teachers should be skilled in: 1. choosing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. 2. Administering, scoring, and interpreting the results of both externally produced and teacher produced assessment methods. 3. Using assessment results when making decisions about individual students, planning teaching, and developing curriculum and school improvement. American Federation of Teachers, National Council on Measurement and Evaluation, and National Education Association in the United States of America.
12. 12. ASSESSMENT COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS 4. Developing valid pupil grading procedures that use pupil assessment. 5. Communicating assessment results to students, parents, other lay audiences, and other educators. 6. Recognizing unethical, illegal, and otherwise inappropriate assessment methods and uses of assessment information.
13. 13. SHIFTS IN ASSESSMENT  Testing Alternative assessment  Paper and pencil Performance assessment  Multiple choice Supply  Single correct answer Many correct answer  Summative Formative  Outcome only Process and Outcome  Skill focused Task-based  Isolated facts Application of knowledge  Decontextualized task Contextualized task
14. 14. ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF ASSESSMENT  Performance based assessment  Authentic assessment  Portfolio assessment
15. 15. OBJECTIVES  1. Distinguish performance-based assessment with the traditional paper and pencil tests.  2. Construct tasks that are performance based.  Design a rubric to assess a performance based task
16. 16. TERMS  Authentic assessment  Direct assessment  Alternative assessment  Performance testing  Performance assessment  Changes are taking place in assessment
17. 17. METHOD  Assessment should measure what is really important in the curriculum.  Assessment should look more like instructional activities than like tests.  Educational assessment should approximate the learning tasks of interest, so that, when students practice for the assessment, some useful learning takes place.
18. 18. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT?  Testing that requires a student to create an answer or a product that demonstrates his/her knowledge or skills (Rudner & Boston, 1991).
19. 19. FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT  Intended to assess what it is that students know and can do with the emphasis on doing.  Have a high degree of realism about them.  Involve: (a) activities for which there is no correct answer, (b) assessing groups rather than individuals, (c) testing that would continue over an extended period of time, (d) self-evaluation of performances.  Likely use open-ended tasks aimed at assessing higher level cognitive skills.
20. 20. PUSH ON PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT  Bring testing methods more in line with instruction.  Assessment should approximate closely what it is students should know and be able to do.
21. 21. EMPHASIS OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT  Should assess higher level cognitive skills rather than narrow and lower level discreet skills.  Direct measures of skills of interest.
22. 22. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT  Students perform, create, construct, produce, or do something.  Deep understanding and/or reasoning skills are needed and assessed.  Involves sustained work, often days and weeks.  Calls on students to explain, justify, and defend.  Performance is directly observable.  Involves engaging in ideas of importance and substance.  Relies on trained assessor’s judgments for scoring  Multiple criteria and standards are prespecified and public  There is no single correct answer.  If authentic, the performance is grounded in real world contexts and constraints.
23. 23. VARIATION OF AUTHENTICITY Relatively authentic Somewhat authentic Authentic Indicate which parts of a garden design are accurate Design a garden Create a garden Write a paper on zoning Write a proposal to change fictitious zoning laws Write a proposal to present to city council to change zoning laws Explain what would you teach to students learning basketball Show how to perform basketball skills in practice Play a basketball game.
24. 24. CONSTRUCTING PERFORMANCE BASED TASKS 1. Identify the performance task in which students will be engaged 2. Develop descriptions of the task and the context in which the performance is to be conducted. 3. Write the specific question, prompt, or problem that the student will receive. • Structure: Individual or group? • Content: Specific or integrated? • Complexity: Restricted or extended?
25. 25. COMPLEXITY OF TASK  Restricted-type task  Narrowly defined and require brief responses  Task is structured and specific  Ex:  Construct a bar graph from data provided  Demonstrate a shorter conversation in French about what is on a menu  Read an article from the newspaper and answer questions  Flip a coin ten times. Predict what the next ten flips of the coin will be, and explain why.  Listen to the evening news on television and explain if you believe the stories are biased.  Construct a circle, square, and triangle from provided materials that have the same circumference.
26. 26.  Extended-type task  Complex, elaborate, and time-consuming.  Often include collaborative work with small group of students.  Requires the use of a variety of information  Examples:  Design a playhouse and estimate cost of materials and labor  Plan a trip to another country: Include the budget and itinerary, and justify why you want to visit certain places  Conduct a historical reenactment (e. g. impeachment trial of ERAP)  Diagnose and repair a car problem  Design an advertising campaign for a new or existing product
27. 27. IDENTIFYING PERFORMANCE TASK DESCRIPTION  Prepare a task description  Listing of specifications to ensure that essential if criteria are met  Includes the ff.:  Content and skill targets to be assessed  Description of student activities  Group or individual  Help allowed  Resources needed  Teacher role  Administrative process  Scoring procedures
28. 28. PERFORMANCE-BASED TASK QUESTION PROMPT  Task prompts and questions will be based on the task descriptions.  Clearly identifies the outcomes, outlines what the students are encourage dot do, explains criteria for judgment.
29. 29. EXAMPLE OF A TASK PROMPT:
30. 30. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA  What you look for in student responses to evaluate their progress toward meeting the learning target.  Dimensions of traits in performance that are used to illustrate understanding, reasoning, and proficiency.  Start with identifying the most important dimensions of the performance  What distinguishes an adequate to an inadequate demonstration of the target?
31. 31. EXAMPLE OF CRITERIA  Learning target:  Students will be able to write a persuasive paper to encourage the reader to accept a specific course of action or point of view.  Criteria:  Appropriateness of language for the audience  Plausibility and relevance of supporting arguments.  Level of detail presented  Evidence of creative, innovative thinking  Clarity of expression  Organization of ideas
32. 32.  Watch video of Cody Green
33. 33. RATING SCALES  Indicate the degree to which a particular dimension is present.  Three kinds: Numerical, qualitative, combined qualitative/quantitative
34. 34.  Numerical Scale  Numbers of a continuum to indicate different level of proficiency in terms of frequency or quality Example: No Understanding 1 2 3 4 5 Complete understanding No organization 1 2 3 4 5 Clear organization Emergent reader 1 2 3 4 5 Fluent reader
35. 35.  Qualitative scale  Uses verbal descriptions to indicate student performance.  Provides a way to check the whether each dimension was evidenced.  Type A: Indicate different gradations of the dimension  Type B: Checklist
36. 36.  Example of Type A:  Minimal, partial, complete  Never, seldom, occasionally, frequently, always  Consistent, sporadically, rarely  None, some, complete  Novice, intermediate, advance, superior  Inadequate, needs improvement, good excellent  Excellent, proficient, needs improvement  Absent, developing, adequate, fully developed  Limited, partial, thorough  Emerging, developing, achieving  Not there yet, shows growth, proficient  Excellent, good, fair, poor
37. 37.  Example of Type A: Checklist
38. 38.  Holistic scale  The category of the scale contains several criteria, yielding a single score that gives an overall impression or rating Example level 4: Sophisticated understanding of text indicated with constructed meaning level 3: Solid understanding of text indicated with some constructed meaning level 2: Partial understanding of text indicated with tenuous constructed meaning level 1: superficial understanding of text with little or no constructed meaning
39. 39. EXAMPLE HOLISTIC SCALE
40. 40.  Analytic Scale  One in which each criterion receives a separate score. Example Criteria Outstanding 5 4 Competent 3 Marginal 2 1 Creative ideas Logical organization Relevance of detail Variety in words and sentences Vivid images
41. 41. RUBRICS  When scoring criteria are combined with a rating scale, a complete scoring guideline is produced or rubric.  A scoring guide that uses criteria to differentiate between levels of student proficiency.
42. 42. EXAMPLE OF A RUBRIC
43. 43. GUIDELINES IN CREATING A RUBRIC 1. Be sure the criteria focus on important aspects of the performance 2. Match the type of rating with the purpose of the assessment 3. The descriptions of the criteria should be directly observable 4. The criteria should be written so that students, parents, and others understand them. 5. The characteristics and traits used in the scale should be clearly and specifically defined. 6. Take appropriate steps to minimize scoring frame
44. 44. WORKSHOP  Create a performance based task.  Indicate the following:  Nature of the final product  What students are suppose to do  Criteria for the marking  Group 1: Theorems of proportionality  Group 2: Trigonometric ratio  Group 3: Rational Expression  Group 4: Quadratic function
45. 45. PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT: EXPLORATION  Have you ever done a portfolio?  Tell me about this experience. Did you enjoy it?  What elements did you include in your portfolio?  Are the materials placed in the portfolio required?  Watch video on Portfolio
46. 46. WHAT ARE PORTFOLIOS?  Purposeful, systematic process of collecting and evaluating student products to document progress toward the attainment of learning targets or show evidence that a learning target has been achieved.  Includes student participation in the selection and student self-reflection.  “A collection of artifacts accompanied by a reflective narrative that not only helps the learner to understand and extend learning, but invites the reader of the portfolio to gain insight about learning and the learner (Porter & Cleland, 1995)
47. 47. CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT  Clearly defined purpose and learning targets  Systematic and organized collection of student products  Preestablished guidelines for what will be included  Student selection of some works that will be included  Student self-reflection and self-evaluation  Progress documented with specific products and/or evaluations  Portfolio conferences between students and teachers
48. 48. PURPOSE OF PORTFOLIO  Showcase portfolio: Selection of best works. Student chooses work, profile are accomplishments and individual profile emerges.  Documentation portfolio: Like a scrapbook of information and examples. Includes observations, tests, checklists, and rating scales.  Evaluation portfolio: More standardized. Assess student learning with self-reflection. Examples are selected by teachers and predetermined.
49. 49. ADVANTAGES OF PORTFOLIO  Students are actively involved in self-evaluation and self-reflection  Involves collaborative assessment  Ongoing process where students demonstrate performance, evaluate , revise , and produce quality work.  Focus on self-improvement rather than comparison with others  Students become more engaged in learning because both instruction and assessment shift from teacher controlled to mix of internal and external control.  Products help teachers diagnose learning difficulties  clarify reasons for evaluation  Flexible
50. 50.  Final Workshop  crlmgn@yahoo.com