NATURALISTIC QUALITATIVE INQUIRY DR.R.KRISHNARAJ PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION AND HEAD, DEPARTMENT OF LIFELONG LEARNING ALAGAPPA UNIVERSITY, KARAIKUDI.
NATURALISTIC QUALITATIVE INQUIRY•It express one view as to the nature of “reality”. Itis the view that the real world is a dynamic systemall of whose parts are so interrelated that one partinevitably influences the other parts.•To understand to real world, the parts cannot beseparated bit by bit, but the parts must beexamined in the context of the whole.•It is essentially a phenomenological view – asdifferentiated from a logical – positivistic view – ofthe reality of the world.
Phenomenological researchDescribes the meaning for severalindividuals of their lived experience of acertain phenomena.Can center around basic broad questions:“what have you experienced in terms of thephenomena” and “what contexts haveinfluenced your experience of thephenomena”
Grounded theory researchEmployed in situations where it is perceivedas necessary to go beyond description andgenerate theory.Use of the constant comparative methodCan lead to follow up quantitative research
Ethnographic researchThis kind of research focuses on an entirecultural group: describes their sharedpatterns of values, behavior, language andculture…Field work as method of data collection.
Case study researchThis kind of research involves the study ofan issue explored through one or two caseswithin a setting or context.
NATURALISTIC INQUIRIESRefer to the inquiries that• Employ direct contact between investigators and actors in the situation as a means of collecting data.• Use emergent strategies to design the study rather than a priori specification.• Develop data categories from examination of the data themselves after collection.• Do not attempt to generalize the findings to a universe beyond that bounded by the study.
RESEARCH PARADIGMS FOR DISCOVERING “TRUTH” OR UNDERSTANDING S.No Paradigm Characteristics1 Judicial paradigm Well established rules of procedure, evidence, guidelines for hearing and conclusion2 Expert judgement Based on judgement of experts-used in athletic and artistic performances3 Rationalistic or Associated with deductive conventional reasoning and logical positivistic paradigm view – based on quantitative approach4 Naturalistic paradigm Many research techniques ; based on inductive thinking and is associated with phenomenological view – qualitative approach
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RATIONALISTIC PARADIGM AND NATURALISTIC PARADIGMS.No Rationalistic Naturalistic1 Certain parts of the world which are called In the real world, events and “variables” may be singled out through phenomena cannot be singled out manipulation from reality for study or from the context as they are treatment while other parts of the setting extricably related and are controlled – laboratory method understanding involves the interrelationships among all of the parts of the whole.2 The inquirer and the subjects remain Dynamic relationship exists and independent to one another the inquirer becomes data – gathering and processing ‘transducer’3 Context free generalisation is the essential Generalisation relates to a goal of inquiry particular context4 It is based on quantitative methods Qualitative methods which emphasize both inner and outer knowledge of men in his world.
S.No Rationalistic Naturalistic5 Use of a priori theory and Theory emerges from the hypothetical– deductive methods data themselves – (hypothesis testing) to design the “grounded theory” study6 There is a preordinate design that A design that is never specifies each step of the inquiry in complete until the inquiry is advance from data collection arbitrarily terminated due to through its analysis time, resources and other considerations.7 Random measures are used for Purposive sampling. sample analysis8 Positivistic approach tends to Emphasis on gestures, search for understanding through language and behavioural data supplied by either the subjects pattern, cultural rules, or others with the help of certain deep-seated values and tools motives arising from cherished traditions.
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE INQUIRY AND THEIR DISCIPLINARY ROOTSS,No Perspective Disciplinary roots Central theme1 Ethnography Anthropology Study of the culture of a particular group or race2 Ethnomethodology Sociology How do people make their activities?3 Phenomenology Philosophy What is the structure and experience of this phenomenon for the people?4 Heuristics Humanistic What is my experience of this Psychology phenomenon?5 Symbolic Interaction Social What common set of symbols psychology, and understandings have linguistics emerged to give meaning to people’s interactions?
S.No Perspective Disciplinary roots Central theme6 Systems theory Interdisciplinary How this system function as a whole?7 Ecological Ecology, psychology How do people attempt to psychology attain goals through specific behaviours in specific environments?8 Hermeneutics Theology, philosophy, What are the conditions under literacy criticism which a human act took place or a product was produced that makes it possible to interpret its meaning?9 Qualitative Political economy, How is a particular ideology ideology manifest in this phenomenon?10 Chaos theory : Theoretical physics, What is the underlying order, nonlinear natural sciences if any, of disorderly dynamics phenomenonSource : Patton, M.Q (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods,Newbury Park, CA: Sage
CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITATIVE INQUIRYS.No Characteristics Major theme1 Natural setting Studying real – world situation in a natural situation, non manipulative and non-controlling2 Human Inquirer is a major source of data collection instrument3 Inductive Immersion in the details and specifies of the data to analysis discover categories, dimensions rather than testing theoretically derived (deductive) hypotheses4 Utilisation of The human instrument builds upon his tacit tacit knoweldge knowledge and uses methods such as interviews, observation, document analysis unobtrusive clues5 Holistic Understanding of the whole phenomena rather than perspective independent units6 Qualitative Detailed thick description about cultural norms, values data and tradition, direct quotations of experts
S.No Characteristics Major Theme7 Grounded theory No priori theory can suit the multi realities; substantive theory emerging from the contextual data.8 Personal contact Direct experience and insights of the researcher are and insight important part of the inquiry for understanding the phenomenon9 Dynamic system Greater attention to process as change is constant and ongoing whether the focus is on individual or an entire culture10 Empathic To understand the real world, the researcher does not neutrality advocate personal agenda or to prove something, rather has empathic insight as part of the relevant data by taking a neutral non judgemental stand11 Purposive Purpose sampling technique to suit the nature of the sampling context rather than random sample12 Emergent design Pursing new paths of discovery depending upon the context
S.No Characteristics Major theme 13 Case study Each case is special and unique; cross-case analysis depends on the orientation quality of individual case 14 Context sensitivity Places findings in a social, historical and temporal context 15 Negotiated Data and interpretations are continuously checked with respondents outcomes who are acting as sources as well as with counter part individuals; differences of opinion are negotiated until the outcomes are agreed upon 16 Idiographic No universal laws are arrived at from contextual data, the conclusions interpretation are in the form of working hypotheses that emerge from the experiences gathered. Case study is an interpretative instrument for an idiographic construal of what was found there. 17 Tentative application Application of truth may be tentatively applied to some other contexts, if empirical comparison seems to warrant such an extension 18 Focus – determined The study is bounded by the nature of the problem, the evaluand or boundaries the policy option being investigated 19 Special criteria for The trust worthiness is tested by four naturalistic analogues - trustworthiness credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability in the place of validity, reliablity and objectivity.Sources : i) Patton M.Q (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods,Newbury Park, California, Sage2) Lincoln, Y.S. and Guba E.G. (1985) Naturalistic inquiry, Bevery Hills, CA:Sage
THE AUDIT It is designed to judge the rigour and authenticity of the study. The raw material for the audit is the investigator’s paper trial which documents the data (raw field notes of observation, interviews and documents). Through the examination of the audit trial, the credibility (persistent observation, triangulation and member check), transferability (purposive sampling and thick design), dependability (emergent design) and confirmability (cross – validation) are established.
COMPONENTS OF TRUSTWORTHINESS (Lincoln and Guba, 1985)1. Credibility : It is defined as “a check on the isomorphism between the inquirer’s data and interpretations and the multiple realities in the minds of informants”.2. Transferability : defined as the “equivalent of generability to the extent that there are similarities between sending and receiving contexts”.3. Dependability : “includes the instability factors typically indicated by the term ‘unreliability’ but makes allowances for emergent designs and developing theory that also induce change”.4. Confirmability : “Shifts the emphasis from the certifiability of the inquirer to the confirmability of the data”
TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE THECREDIBILITY OF DATA (Internal Validity)1) Prolonged data gathering on site – greater amount of time spent on the site would enhance the credibility of data.2) Triangulation – using many sources of information about a particular phenomenon; eg. data collected from one source may be cross-checked with other sources for verification; multiple data gathering techniques.3) Member checks – continuous consultation with other members4) Referential adequacy materials – creating and maintaining a file of materials from the site. It includes all sorts of relevant documents.5) Thick description – triangulation, member checks, corroborating information and collecting referential adequacy materials are meant for the purpose of giving thick description.6) Peer consultation – discuss with peer experts the progress of work.
Designing naturalistic inquiriesNaturalistic designs must emerge and unfold as the study progresses.Not all of the elements can be specified ahead of time, but some can.Determining where and from whom data will be collected.Identifying initial sample and making provisions for orderly evolutionPhases of inquiry:Orientation and overviewFocused explorationMember checkingDetermining instrumentation: teams and training
Designing naturalistic inquiriesPlanning data collection and recording:– Interview/participant observation..– Recording: advantages of field notes over recordingPlanning data analysis procedures: mustbegin early and be ongoing.Planning for trustworthiness
Participant observation (Spradley 1980)Dual purposes of participant observation: To engage in activities To observe activitiesExplicit awareness: becoming aware of things that you normally block out.Wide angle lens: wider circle of awarenessInsider/outsider experiences.IntrospectionRecord keepingAwareness of what is not there
Kinds of participationNon participation (study of TV programs)Passive participation (courtroom spectator)Moderate participation (“watching” video games)Active participation (learning to do what others are doing)Complete participation
Qualities of good interviewsBegin with small talkListening:– Follow up on of course statements– Listen for key words– Probing questions– Use of why questions (Don’t ask for meaning, ask for use)– Self disclosure
Taking notes (Lincoln and Guba, 1985).Disadvantages:– One cannot record everything.– Rapid handwriting is sometimes undecipherable.– Respondent may slow down to accommodate the interviewer and lose train of thought.Advantages:– Forces careful attention– Can interpolate questions or comments on to the notes without knowledge of interviewee.– Notes can easily be flagged for follow ups– Member checking is easier.
When to use qualitative research “Quality” versus “quantity”. For problems that need exploration For problems that need a complex detailed understanding. To empower individual and collective voices. To write in styles that push the limits of formal academic narratives To understand contexts The question of “fit”