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Unit 12 rock types


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Unit 12 rock types

  2. 2. GENERAL REMINDERS • You are to read the information found on this set of notes. • You are to complete reading the entire Unit 12 of your text book. • Express Students need to complete pg 93 to 100 of the textbook. • Normal Academic Students need to complete pg 93 to 96, 98 to 100.
  3. 3. UNIT OBJECTIVES • By the end of this unit you will be able to 1. Identify and describe the 3 types of rocks 2. Identify and describe the main types of rocks in Singapore. 3. Explain the components in the rock cycle. (Express stream only)
  4. 4. WHAT ARE ROCKS • The hard outer layer of the Earth’s crust. • Made up of minerals • Key characteristics include minerals, hardness, colour, grain size and texture. • 3 main groups of rocks • Igneous Rocks • Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks
  5. 5. IGNEOUS ROCKS •Formed when magma cools and solidifies. •Can be above or beneath the Earth’s surface. •Highly crystalline.
  6. 6. GRANITE
  7. 7. COARSE GRAINED IGNEOUS ROCKS •Developed below Earth’s surface. •Slow rate of cooling, forming coarse grains. •Large crystals formed. •Granite • Made of quartz, feldspar and mica.
  8. 8. FINE-GRAINED IGNEOUS ROCKS • Magma cools near the surface or on the surface. • High speed of cooling forming fine grained rocks. • Crystals are small in size. • Basalt • Dark in colour,
  9. 9. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS •Formed by layering of materials that layer on land or sea floor. •Compacted by weight of the thick layers. •Over time, the layers fuse and become Sedimentary Rocks
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS •Variety in grain size, colour and textures •Formed from compression of organic and inorganic materials. •Occasionally possible to have fossils. • Sandstone, mudstone, shale, limestone
  11. 11. Sandstone Limestone Shale
  12. 12. METAMORPHIC ROCK • Rocks subjected to intense pressures and heat. • Crustal movements produce great pressure, changing the properties of existing rocks. • Igneous and Sedimentary rocks can both be changed into metamorphic rock. • Limestone -> Marble • Shale -> Slate
  13. 13. Slate
  14. 14. THE ROCK CYCLE •Shows the relationship between the 3 rock types. •Rocks change types with the following actions • Weathering and Erosion • Compaction and Cementation. • Melting and Cooling • Heat and Pressure Express Stream ONLY
  15. 15. ROCK TYPES IN SINGAPORE •Take a look at the diagram on pg 98. •Memorise the locations where you find the most Igneous rocks, where you would find more Sedimentary rocks and where you would find Metamorphic rocks.
  16. 16. QUESTIONS IN REVIEW •What are rocks •How are the 3 rock types formed •Name examples of each type of rock •How does the rock cycle explain the relationship between the different types of rock.
  17. 17. FINAL NOTE •Read the chapter in the textbook. •The next single period lesson you will have your test. •It will be only short answer questions, no MCQ. •Good luck!