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Unit 1 tourism part 3

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SEc 4 UNit 2 tourism part 3

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Unit 1 tourism part 3

  1. 1. ELECTIVE GEOGRAPHY OUR CHANGING WORLD GLOBAL TOURISM IS TOURISM THE WAY TO GO?
  2. 2. GATEWAY 3 DEVELOPING TOURISM AT WHAT COST? • Assess the impact of tourism on a country • Explain how tourism can be made sustainable • Compare the role of various groups in taking care of tourist areas
  3. 3. IMPACTS OF TOURISM Impacts Economic Socio-cultural Environmental POSITIVE • Employment opportunities • Growth in income • Increase in foreign exchange • Infrastructure & facilities development • Preservation of heritage, culture & local customs • Conservation of natural habitats NEGATIVE • Leakage of tourism receipts • Seasonal unemployment • Under-use of facilities • Shortage of facilities • Dilution of heritage, culture & local customs • Increased crime • Vandalism • Littering & pollution • Destruction of habitat • Increased carbon footprint • Increased congestion
  4. 4. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Employment opportunities • Growth in tourism industry can lead to increase in in tourism- related jobs • Eg: airline staff, hotel staff, tour guides and tour agents, producers of souvenirs
  5. 5. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Other jobs are indirectly linked to tourism when they travel and consume goods & services • Eg: taxi drivers, shop owners, restaurant waiters • UNWTO estimated that tourism industry employed over 235 million people in 2011
  6. 6. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Growth in income • Tourism leads to growth of income for individuals and a country • Eg: fishermen on Pamilacan Island (Philippines) • US$80 - $100 for boat trips to see whale sharks and dolphins
  7. 7. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Leakage of tourism receipts • When tourism revenue is lost to other countries due to import of goods & services • Eg: foreign hotel chains, international airline tickets • See pg 57, fig 1.70
  8. 8. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Increase in foreign exchange • Refers to money earned from other countries in exchange for goods & services • When tourism business investments exchange their own currency for Singapore dollars • Increases demand for S$
  9. 9. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Contribute to government revenue • Directly from taxes on tourists • Indirectly from goods & services supplied to tourists • Taxes are collected in local currency, which increases the foreign exchange of host country
  10. 10. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Infrastructure development • Refers to all supporting structures • Helps tourism to operate on a large scale and to attract tourists (good facilities) • Specific infrastructures may be developed for some activities
  11. 11. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Eg: stadium for sporting events, hospitals for medical tourism • Rail and road networks improve general accessibility • Developing infrastructure also creates employment for the locals
  12. 12. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Seasonal unemployment • When tourist activities are dependent on climatic conditions • Locals employed in these tourist activities may have to find alternative employment when the activities are not available • Eg: ski resorts in summer
  13. 13. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Underuse of facilities • When purpose-built facilities for certain seasons or events become too costly to maintain because of drop in tourists • Venues and facilities become neglected • Eg: Bird Nest and Water Cube
  14. 14. IMPACTS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Shortage of services • Compromise of services for locals when channeled to tourist infrastructure • Refer to examples in pg 61, fig 1.78
  15. 15. PITSTOP 11 Pg 61 Questions • 3 • 4 (a), (b), (c) • 5
  16. 16. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – SOCIO-CULTURAL • Culture – includes morals, beliefs, heritage and customs • Heritage – beliefs, values and customs • Eg: buildings, monuments, art and language
  17. 17. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – SOCIO-CULTURAL • Customs – traditional ways of doings things and behaving • Eg: person-to-person greeting, practices during wedding ceremonies, practices during meals
  18. 18. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – SOCIO-CULTURAL • Preservation of local culture • Protect the way people live • Preserved historic and cultural sites are more attractive to tourists • Enhances locals’ national identity, and sense of history & belonging
  19. 19. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – SOCIO-CULTURAL • Revenue generated from tourism can be used to fund the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage • Eg: entry fees to Angkor Wat complex can fund repairs and conservation works
  20. 20. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – SOCIO-CULTURAL • Dilution of local culture • Identity, culture and values can be lost when tourism becomes a major activity or when it is too commercialised • Tourist activities may force original local inhabitants to other places
  21. 21. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – SOCIO-CULTURAL • Examples: • Buildings converted to host tourists • Mass production of local crafts • Shortened rituals to fit itineraries • Locals displayed as ‘exhibits’ • Reduced authenticity & significance
  22. 22. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – SOCIO-CULTURAL • Increased crime rates • High crime rates tend to occur at popular tourist locations • Mugging: an assault upon a person with intention to rob
  23. 23. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – SOCIO-CULTURAL • Tourist traps: • Overpriced goods: goods & services sold at inflated prices • Scams: to cheat or swindle with intention of making quick profits • Tourist traps can refer to locations where scams are common too
  24. 24. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – ENVIRONMENTAL • Conservation of natural environments • Revenue and profits generated from tourism can contribute to conservation of natural environments • Recall ‘Ecotourism’ and 6 principles
  25. 25. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – ENVIRONMENTAL • Increased congestion • Popular areas can attract large number of tourists • Some attractions in remote locations cannot handle the amount of traffic • Cause pedestrian and vehicular congestion (air pollution)
  26. 26. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – ENVIRONMENTAL • Vandalism • The deliberate act of defacing and damaging cultural, historical and natural sites belonging to other people • Eg: removing wall pieces from Berlin Wall
  27. 27. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – ENVIRONMENTAL
  28. 28. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – ENVIRONMENTAL • Pollution and littering • Caused by improper waste management • Tourists can leave behind large quantities of waste matter • Eg: plastic bottles and food packaging
  29. 29. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – ENVIRONMENTAL • Destruction of habitats • Natural environments can be overwhelmed by the large number of tourists • Eg: Trampling of plants, collecting samples as souvenirs, increased noise level
  30. 30. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – ENVIRONMENTAL Take nothing except photographs Leave nothing except footprints
  31. 31. IMPACTS OF TOURISM – ENVIRONMENTAL • Increased carbon footprint • More greenhouse gases emitted due to tourist activities • Eg: flight from Singapore to KL releases 30kg of CO2 per passenger
  32. 32. PITSTOP 12 Pg 66 Questions • 2 • 4 • 6 • 8 (a), (b)
  33. 33. MANAGING IMPACTS OF TOURISM • Conservation and sustainable tourism • Tension between tourists and locals • Tension between tourists and environment
  34. 34. MANAGING IMPACTS OF TOURISM Needs of tourists Condition of the site Concerns of locals
  35. 35. CONSERVATION & SUSTAINABLE TOURISM • Conservation involves careful management of resources such that they would not be depleted • Important for fragile environments • Eg: coral reefs and mangroves
  36. 36. • Sustainable Tourism • Tourism organised such that: • the environment is not damaged • the locals do not experience negative impacts • the needs of tourists are met CONSERVATION & SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
  37. 37. • Sustainable Tourism also involves minimum leakage of revenue through • Training locals to perform skilled tourism jobs • Develop homestays where visitors can pay locals directly • Promoting local F&B in restaurants CONSERVATION & SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
  38. 38. • UNESCO – UN Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organisation • Provide funding to threatened sites • World Heritage Sites: 12 (1978) to 1,000 (2012) • Well-protected sites ensure steady arrival and repeated returns of tourists CONSERVATION & SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
  39. 39. TENSION BETWEEN TOURISTS AND LOCALS • Conflict between needs of the tourists and needs of the locals • Eg: tourists wearing skimpy clothing and public displays of affection make locals uncomfortable • Eg: Bali (read page 69 & 70!)
  40. 40. TENSION BETWEEN TOURISTS AND ENVIRONMENT • Conflict between needs of the tourists and needs to conserve the environment • Tourist arrivals damage the environment, however the revenue also contribute to the conservation of the site • Eg: Machu Picchu, Peru (read page 70 & 71!)
  41. 41. • Government authorities plan an important role • Limit number of visitors to minimise congestion (recall Waitomo Caves) • Witholding permission to projects that could harm the environment MEASURES TO MANAGE TENSIONS
  42. 42. • Employing staff to carry out maintenance and repair • Holding discussions with locals to address their needs • Restricting some locals-only areas MEASURES TO MANAGE TENSIONS
  43. 43. • Local communities • Visitors • Tour operators • Non-governmental organisations • Planning authorities RESPONSIBILITIES OF VARIOUS GROUPS
  44. 44. • Group of people in the same territory or community • Have interests in protecting tourist areas for economic benefits • Community-based tourism: tourism with close contact with locals communities LOCAL COMMUNITIES
  45. 45. • Eg: Candirejo Village, Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia • 2003: set up tourism-related programmes • Developed homestays and organic farming, organised local transport • Trained villagers to tourism- related work (catering, guides) LOCAL COMMUNITIES
  46. 46. • 2004: 22 homestays, 22 andongs, 6 local restaurants • 2002: 10 homestays, 5 andongs, 0 local restaurants • Created 63 new jobs, 5 new businesses • 12.5% increase in average income per villager LOCAL COMMUNITIES
  47. 47. • Involves locals in decision- making • Increase in tourism-related employment & businesses for locals • Difficulty in obtaining external funding • Shortage of skilled labour LOCAL COMMUNITIES
  48. 48. • Have responsibility to respect both the environment and the locals • Consider the conservation efforts of tourist site • Visitors can feel their visit is more rewarding when they know they have minimised their damage on the environment VISITORS (TOURISTS)
  49. 49. • Fund conservation & preservation • Provide income locals • Raise awareness to conserve and preserve attractions • Damage tourist attractions • Dilute local culture & customs VISITORS (TOURISTS)
  50. 50. • Have interest in protecting environments visited by tourists • Tourists unlikely to visit places with spoilt landscapes, reduced biodiversity and deteriorated cultures • Eg: Phuket Alternative Tours (PAT) in 2006 TOUR OPERATORS
  51. 51. • Tour operators required to commit to an Environmental & Cultural Code of Practice • Operate in an environmentally sustainable way • Seek to enhance the natural environment and the way the industry uses it • Create awareness about conservation to visitors TOUR OPERATORS
  52. 52. • Provide feedback on tourist attractions • Regulate tourist behaviour • Need to generate profits TOUR OPERATORS
  53. 53. • NGOs are non-profit and operate independent of governments • Eg: TIES (recall Ecotourism) • Developed guidelines, conducted training, provide technical assistance, published papers • Works with travel associations and conservation groups in 124 countries NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORG.
  54. 54. • Facilitate communication between various stakeholders • Support stakeholders in managing impact of tourism • Difficulty in obtaining external funding NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORG.
  55. 55. • Able to influence the quality of environments and how many visitors the site can cope with • Allocating space for infrastructure • Eg: Singapore Tourism Board • Balance between attracting visitors and conserving Singapore’s national heritage PLANNING AUTHORITIES
  56. 56. • Implement programmes to conserve and enhancing ethnic districts of Singapore • Chinatown, Kampong Glam and Little India PLANNING AUTHORITIES
  57. 57. • Develop and maintain infrastructure & attractions • Draft laws and policies • Work with other government agencies • Difficult to plan for unforseen factors • Opposing stakeholders PLANNING AUTHORITIES
  58. 58. CHECKPOINT Pg 53 Questions • 2 • 6 • 10 (Open-ended question) • 12 (Open-ended question) • 13 (a), (b) • 14 (a), (b)
  59. 59. TOURISM IN SINGAPORE • Page 76 to 80 • You should be able to: • Discuss the tourist activities in Singapore • Locate the tourist sites and attracts • Explain how tourism has impacted S’pore • Explain how these impacts are being managed • Explain why tourism is a vital sector of Singapore’s economy
  60. 60. END OF CHAPTER

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