Food resources gateway 1 lesson 6 flipped classroom sec 4 express only


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elective geography food resources lesson 6 final

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    4 min video on the Great man-made river Libya
    Advertisement for world biggest combine harvester.
    Video on BT Corn
  • Food resources gateway 1 lesson 6 flipped classroom sec 4 express only

    1. 1. CBSS Humanities Flip Classroom Package Lesson 6
    2. 2. Technological advances • Green Revolution – The use of technology to increase productivity of agriculture. – Started in the 1960s. – Key success is in the Less Developed Countries (LDCs). – 4 key pushes • High-yielding varieties • Fertilisers and pesticides • Improved irrigation • Mechanisation
    3. 3. HYV varieties • Strains of crops with increased growth rate. • Developed through cross-breeding of selected varieties • Bred for favourable characteristics. – Resistance to pests and diseases – Short growing season. – ‘wonder rice’ - 100 day rice – IR8 (HYV rice) promoted across Asia, success in India.
    4. 4. Fertilisers • Substances added to provide nutrients. • Solution to soil nutrient depletion. –Commercial farms do not have allowance for fallow –Land is not allowed to recover • Fertilisers reinstate the nutrient in the soil, helping the crop yield of HYV.
    5. 5. Pesticides • Chemicals to kill insects and small animals (pests). • Herbicides kill weeds (plants). • Large amount of pests / weeds can decimate complete yields. • Use of Pesticides and Herbicides will help maintain the crop yield.
    6. 6. Irrigation • Manmade supplying of water to land. • Introduction of water to arid areas – Areas with minimal water supply • Increased arable land worldwide • Reclaiming desert areas as agricultural land – Libya, Great Man-made River. Read Pg 135 Click here to watch a related video
    7. 7. Mechanisation • Used of advanced machinery to perform manual tasks. • Speeds up processes • Increases efficiency • Reduces reliance on human labour. • Combined Harvester, Planes, etc. Click to watch a video on technology
    8. 8. Genetically modified food (GM) • Food crops that have been genetically modified. • Genes are selected based on predetermined criteria. • Transplanting of genetic material from different organisms. • Search for positive characteristics that would assist in : – Faster rate of growth – Better quality of product
    9. 9. 2 stages of GM food development HYV crops (1960s – present) GM crops (1990s – present) Method of development • Cross-breeding • Alternation of genes Benefits • Shorter growing season • Resistant to pests and diseases • Shorter growing season • Resistant to pests and diseases • Resistant to extreme weather conditions • Health benefits Examples • Super rice • Wonder rice • FlavrSavr Tomato • Golden Rice • BT-cotton • BT-corn
    10. 10. Super Rice Video Flavr Savr Tomato Video BT Corn Video
    11. 11. Effects of continuing intensification of food production? • Intensification of food production brings many benefits. • It increases the total amount of food produced. • With extended intensification, there is also large scale environmental damage. • Waterlogging – situation where too much water seeps into the soil and cause the soil to be over-saturated. Roots drown.
    12. 12. Salinisation • Water added during irrigation evaporates and leaves salt behind. • With insufficient drainage of excess water, groundwater rises and brings up dissolved salts. • Victoria, Australia. Combination of tree clearing and irrigation led to salinisation of farmland.
    13. 13. Eutrofication • Presence of excess nutrients in water leading to algae bloom. • Algae depletes oxygen and blocks sunlight from aquatic plants. • Large scale death of aquatic plants and organisms. • Decomposition of aquatic organisms lead to further depleting of oxygen.
    14. 14. Measures to reverse eutrophication • Control measures to prevent nutrients from reaching the water bodies. – Runoff management, use of hard engineering measures to prevent runoff from reaching the water bodies. • Raising awareness through education – Education in schools and public education campaign.
    15. 15. Take a Breather • Click on the icon below and view a couple of short videos on Eutrophication. Video 1 Video 2
    16. 16. Consequences of development of GM crops • Long-term impact on human health unknown. • Cultivation of GM crops restricted in some countries like Peru. • Most countries require clear labelling for products made from GM crops. • Some countries ban the sale of GM crops.
    17. 17. Benefits GM crops bring • Increased income for farmers –GM increases productivity –Pest resistant crops save money on pesticides –Higher crop yield brings higher income. •BT-cotton Click on me Watch BT Corn!
    18. 18. Nutritional benefits • GM allows for modification to have higher nutrition. • Golden Rice (higher Vitamin A) • Able to help reduce blindness. • Large nutritional benefit for LDCs.
    19. 19. Decreased Environmental Pollution • GM crops reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. • Reduce the potential of environmental pollution. • BT Corn’s minimal reliance on pesticide sprays.
    20. 20. Threats of GM crops • Dominance of agribusiness –GM crops require high capital inputs –Large companies are more able. –Small scale farmers unable to afford the GM seeds and techniques. –Small scale farmers cannot enjoy the benefits.
    21. 21. Potential Health Risks • Unknown effects on human health as a result of genetic engineering. • Concern over triggers of allergic reactions due to the change in the genetic composition of the crops.
    22. 22. Loss of biodiversity • Success of GM crops harm other organisms. • Transfer of pest resistance to wild varieties lead to extinction of insects and animals that feed on wild species. • Monarch butterfly caterpillars die from eating milkweed that were contaminated with pollen from BT corn.
    23. 23. Causes of food shortages • Physical factors – Extreme Weather conditions, Climate change, Pests • Political factors – Civil strife, Poor governance • Economic factors – Demand from emerging economies, food policy, rising costs • Social factors – Lack of accessibility, Bad logistics and distribution, Population explosion.
    24. 24. Physical Factors
    25. 25. Climate Change • Change in weather patterns and global climate affect growing season and crop yield. • Previously arable areas no longer suitable. • Loss of glacial ice reduces freshwater supply for river basins globally. –Agricultural land dependent on these will dry up.
    26. 26. Extreme weather events • Droughts, cold waves, heat waves, tropical cyclones. • Lead to destruction of crops, farmland and potential food shortage. • Extreme weather events more common due to climate change.
    27. 27. Pests • Rising global temperatures encourage growth of pests. • Swarms of pests increase to larger quantities. • Locusts swarms and Caterpillar invasions.
    28. 28. Political Factors
    29. 29. Civil Strife • Country faces major internal conflicts. • Riots, unrest, or civil war. • Disputes over control of resources. • Reduction of food production. – Farmland loss to war and conflict are unable to contribute to production.
    30. 30. Poor Governance • Corruption, policy errors and inability to implement policy causes food shortages. • Prioritising other developmental needs over ensuring food security leads to re-allocation of farm land to other functions.
    31. 31. Economic Factors
    32. 32. Demands from emerging economies • Rise of large LDCs (Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC). • Increase in size and affluence leads to increase in demand for food products. • Larger demand leads to food shortages in poorer countries.
    33. 33. Food Policy • Governments use stockpiles to ensure food security. • However stockpiling may lead to price rises. • Reduction in global supply lead to shortage for LDCs.
    34. 34. Food subsidies • Money paid or tax deductions to make food affordable. • Countries with substantial economic reserves able to use it to help citizens. • Countries who are not rich enough to provide subsidies will have large populations facing food shortage.
    35. 35. Spike in fertiliser and transport costs • Sudden rises in production costs lead to price spikes of food. • Without corresponding rise in income lead to poverty and food shortages.
    36. 36. Loss of farmland • Growing industrial crops leading to loss of food crops • Switch to biofuels lead to increase demand for land for biofuel crops. • Higher price of biofuel crops trigger shift from food crop to biofuel crops.
    37. 37. Social Factors
    38. 38. Lack of accessibility • Lack of transport facilities hinder accessibility to food. • Location and quantity of food outlets also affect the accessibility of food. • Inability to access fresh produce leads to a smaller food intake.
    39. 39. Food distribution • The movement of food from farm to retail outlets. • Dependent on good transport network. • Physical barriers and natural disasters can disrupt distribution patterns and reduce the food supply.
    40. 40. Rapid population growth • Population growth is exponential • Food production increment is unable to catch up without technological advances. • Larger population leads to further need for land and reduction in existing farmland. • Sub-Saharan Africa is at highest risk.
    41. 41. Is technology in food production the solution? • Current global food production exceeds global needs. • Many areas are still suffering from shortages. • Technology is one part of the solution, other factors need to be managed.
    42. 42. Summary • People in DC and LDCs have different levels and types of food consumption patterns. • Food consumption patterns are influenced by economic, socio-cultural and political factors. • Inadequate food consumption leads to malnutrition and starvation. • Excess food consumption and choice of diet may lead to obesity, lower productivity, food wastage and dieting.