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# Elective Gegography Chapter 1 Plate Tectonics

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Plate Tectonics Volcanoes Human impact Intervention

Plate Tectonics Volcanoes Human impact Intervention

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### Elective Gegography Chapter 1 Plate Tectonics

1. 1. Chapter 1: Living with Tectonic Hazards Part 1: Hazards of the world Copy when you see the star
2. 2. What is a Natural Hazard •Earthquakes •Volcano eruption •Tsunami
3. 3. Earthquake • Is it possible for Singapore to experience an earthquake? • When tremors occur near fault lines, energy is moved along the crust in waves. • Such energy when sufficiently strong will travel long distances. • Over distance, the energy will reduce. • If there is a massive earthquake in Indonesia, we will feel it in Singapore.
4. 4. What the Japanese are trained to do. • Take a look at the next video. • Pay attention to the specific action that the Japanese people do in the event of an earthquake in the following locations. – Home – When driving – At the shops • You will have to answer the worksheet after watching the video so pay attention.
5. 5. Let’s now attempt the exercise • You have 10 minutes to answer the questions on the handout. • Good luck!
6. 6. What is the structure of the Earth? •Core •Mantle •Crust Read up on Pg 7 in your textbook
7. 7. Tectonic Plate • The crust of the earth. • Two general types –Continental plate • Less Dense, heavier –Oceanic plate • Denser, lighter
8. 8. Continental Drift • Theory that crustal plates are constantly moving • Convectional currents move in the mantle due to the variations of temperature. • Warmer magma near the core rises, pushing the crust above to the sides before sinking down upon losing the temperature.
9. 9. Continental Drift Diagram
10. 10. Evidence of Continental Drift Theory • The changing shape of earth’s land mass over earth’s history shows that the plates are moving. • The current location of the continents on earth will continue to change.
11. 11. Continental Drift Diagram
12. 12. SRP Work • Watch the following video on Colliding Continents • Answer the questions in the SRP handout / complete the groupwork • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KCSJNBM OjJs • 50 mins National Geographic video
13. 13. Types of plate boundaries • Convergent plate boundary • Divergent plate boundary • Transform plate boundary • Refer to pg 9 textbook
14. 14. Divergent plates Oceanic – Oceanic divergence • Area where two oceanic plates move away from each other • Magma moves up to the surface and cools to form new oceanic crust • Mid-Atlantic Ridge • Possible to find underwater volcanoes at such locations.
15. 15. Diagram of Divergent plate boundary (insert water surface for oceanic)
16. 16. Continental – Continental divergence • Area where two continental plates move away from each other • Magma moves up to the surface and cools, forming new land. • Often fractures form at the plate boundary, forming a linear depression (rift valley) • Great African Rift Valley
17. 17. Exercise Time • What do you think is needed to answer this question? – “ With the aid of diagram (s), explain the different types of divergent plate boundaries that you have learnt. Give specific examples.” – Use Foolscap paper, complete your diagrams and short explanations with examples. – Diagrams in pencil please.
18. 18. Part 2: Convergent plates
19. 19. Plate movements • If there are plate boundaries that are diverging, at the end of that plate, there will be convergence. • 3 common types of convergent boundaries –Oceanic vs Oceanic plate –Oceanic vs Continental plate –Continental vs Continental plate
20. 20. Reasons for convergence • Plates converge due to continental drift. • As the plates are pushed apart, they crash into one another. • Generally, the denser plate will subduct (sink) below the less dense plate. • The plate that is riding above will buckle (fold) and massive landforms will occur.
21. 21. Oceanic Crusts • Beneath deep oceans • Between 5km and 8km • Consists of basalt • Very dense and heavy • Made of young rock (200 million years ago)
22. 22. Continental Crust • Beneath the earth’s land masses • Between 30-60 km • Consists of lighter rock, like granite • Wide range of rock ages, from recent to over 4 billion year old.
23. 23. Oceanic-oceanic plate boundaries • When two oceanic plates converge • Denser plate subducts under the less dense plate • Area where it subducts is called the subduction zone • A depression in the sea floor occurs at the subduction zone and is called a deep sea trench. (The Mariana Trench) • Volcanic islands can also be formed at such boundaries
24. 24. Oceanic-oceanic plate boundaries
25. 25. Oceanic-Continental plate convergence • When an oceanic plate converges with a continental plate. • The dense oceanic plate is forced down into the mantle. • A deep sea trench is often formed at the subduction zone. (Japanese deep sea trench) • The continental plate folds and forms fold mountains and volcanoes • The Japanese Islands were a result of such convergence.
26. 26. Oceanic-Continental plate convergence
27. 27. Continental-Continental plate convergence • When two equally dense continental plates converge. • There will still be a subduction occurring for one of the plates. However there is a large amount of friction built-up before it occurs. • The strong force generated also causes folding. • At such plate boundaries, large mountain ranges tend to form. (Himalaya)
28. 28. Continental –continental plate convergence
29. 29. Transform boundary • Occurs when plates slide past one another horizontally. • Huge energy released when friction is overcome • Large massive earthquakes experienced • San Andreas Fault (California)
30. 30. Exercise time • Take a look at the handout (exercise 2). • Using the information you have learnt so far, answer the question to the best of your abilities. • Good luck
31. 31. Review Comparison Table Plate boundary type Associated landforms Example Divergent Oceanic-Oceanic Deep sea ridge Mid-Atlantic Ridge Divergent Continental-Continental Rift Valley Great African Rift Valley Convergent Oceanic-Oceanic Deep Sea Trench, Volcanoes, Volcanic Islands Mariana Trench, Mariana Islands, Pacific plate and the Philippine plate Convergent Oceanic-Continental Deep Sea Trench, subduction zone, Volcanoes, Fold mountains Sunda Trench, Barisan mountains, Australian plate and the Eurasian plate Convergent Continental-Continental Deep sea trench, subduction zone, fold mountains Himalayas, Eurasian plate and the Indian plate
32. 32. Part 3 Landforms commonly associated at tectonic boundaries
33. 33. Fold Mountains
34. 34. Fold Mountains • The rock layers on the crust are constantly exposed to pressure • When they are compressed, they fold, forming fold mountains. • To upfold is called the anticline and downfold is called the syncline.
35. 35. Fold Mountains • The major ranges are along convergent plate boundaries • The rocky mountains • Himalayas • Swiss Alps • Pg 22
36. 36. Rift Valleys / Grabens
37. 37. Rift Valleys • Near divergent plate boundaries, plates pull apart, causing land displacement. • The downward displacement forms rift valleys. • Found commonly along divergent boundaries • Also called Graben • East African Rift Valley
38. 38. Rift Valley diagram
39. 39. Block Mountains / Horst Yosemite National Park
40. 40. Block Mountains • When sections of the crust are pulled apart by tensional force, some parts are ripped off. • The downward displaced areas are the rift valleys • The blocks left behind form block mountains with steep sides. • Also called Horst
41. 41. Block Mountain diagram
42. 42. Volcanoes
43. 43. Volcanoes • Landform formed by magma ejected from the mantle. • Magma builds up in the earth’s crust to form a magma chamber. • With repeated layering of ejected magma, the volcano grows in height • Found a divergent and convergent plate boundaries where there is subduction.
44. 44. • Vents are openings in the earth’s surface with a pipe leading into the magma chamber • When magma is ejected onto the surface, it is called lava. There is no change in composition. • Vulcanicity refers to the upward movement of magma in the crust and onto the surface.
45. 45. Let’s take a short Brain Break • Take a look at the video on Mt St Helens in America • Half the volcano was blown off in the eruption
46. 46. Viscosity • The stickiness of the lava • The resistance of the lava to flowing • High viscosity flows slowly • Low viscosity flows quickly • Viscosity of the lava determines the volcano’s shape
47. 47. 2 Key types of Volcanoes 1.Shield Volcanoes 2.Composite Volcanoes (Stratovolcanoes)
48. 48. Shield Volcanoes
49. 49. Shield Volcanoes • Gentle sloping sides and a broad summit • Low-silica lava (low viscosity) present • Lava flow is fast, spreading out quickly • Subsequent layering leads to wide base with low overall height. • Mount Washington in America
50. 50. Stratovolcanoes
51. 51. Stratovolcano • Developed from successive eruptions. • Ash and lava (coarse fragment) accumulate over time. • Layers of ash are locked in by subsequent layers of lava. • Tall volcanoes with concave bases formed. • Secondary cones may develop as magma from the vent seeps into the sides of the cone and erupts. • Pyroclastic flow common – Hot rock fragments and superheated gases. • Mount Pinatubo, Philippines
52. 52. Mt Pinatubo
53. 53. Distribution of volcanoes • Pacific Ring of Fire is the most active volcanic activity occurs • Many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur along the ring of fire • Ring is along several converging plates (Pacific, Nazca, Philippines, Australian and Eurasian plates) • Volcanoes can also form where plates diverge. • Pg 29
54. 54. Pacific Ring of Fire
55. 55. Volcanic Eruptions • Volcanoes fall into 3 states –Active –Dormant –Extinct
56. 56. Active Volcano • Constant volcanic activity • Currently undergoing eruption or are expected to erupt in the future. • Mt Pinatubo, Philippines; Mt St Helens, America.
57. 57. Dormant Volcano • Currently inactive but may erupt in the near future • Prolonged period of no volcanic activity • Inner magma chamber still hot and active • Mt Fuji, Japan
58. 58. Extinct Volcano • Volcanoes without current seismic activity • No geological evidence of eruption in the past thousands of years. • Almost no risk of eruption. • Lake Toba, Indonesia
59. 59. Risks of living near volcanic areas 1.Destruction by volcanic materials 2.Landslides 3.Pollution 4.Effects on weather
60. 60. Destruction by volcanic materials • Lava, rock fragments, volcanic bombs (ejected molten lava blobs) • Extreme temperatures of projectiles and lava flow, destroying and killing. • Inhaling hot gases and ash can also lead to injury and death. • With pyroclastic flow, speeds above 80km/hr can be achieved, making it impossible to escape.
61. 61. The loss people of Pompei
62. 62. Landslides • Collapse of a volcanic cone during eruption. • Downward displacement of previous slide of volcano. • Causes large scale damage to infrastructure and loss of life. • Settlements near the volcano may get wiped out totally.
63. 63. Landslide
64. 64. Pollution • Ash particles and gases released disrupt human activities over long distances. • Some gases (Carbon monoxide, Sulphur dioxide, etc) are harmful to humans • Fine ash particles captured in the air endanger planes and cause large monetary loss due to grounding of flights.
65. 65. Pollution
66. 66. Effects on weather • Sulphur dioxide reacts with water vapour in the atmosphere. • The particles reflect the sun’s energy back into space. • This leads to a cooling of surface temperatures on earth. • Fall in global temperature might affect plant and animal life.
67. 67. Let’s attempt an exercise on what we have covered. • 15 - 20 minutes, • Complete all the questions in Foolscap / space provided • Good luck
68. 68. Earthquakes • Caused by sudden release of stored energy due to movements of crustal plates. • Occurs along faultlines as pressure builds up stress and when the plates slip, earthquakes are formed.
69. 69. Key Earthquake Terms • Seismic waves – energy that is released by earthquakes. • Focus – the point in the crustal plate where the seismic energy originates. • Epicentre – point above the Focus on earth’s surface. Most of the energy released travels along the surface of the earth.
70. 70. • Aftershocks –subsequent smaller earthquakes that follow after a major earthquake. –Could continue to occur months after the initial earthquake. –Some aftershocks might be as powerful as the original earthquake.
71. 71. Depth of Focus • The depth of focus affects the impact felt on the surface. • 2 key types 1. Deep-focus earthquakes 2. Shallow-focus earthquakes
72. 72. Depth of focus • Deep-focus earthquake –70 to 700km below surface –Smaller impact on land –Most of seismic waves lose their energy as they reach the surface.
73. 73. Depth of focus • Shallow-focus earthquake –70km and above in the crust –Greater impact on land –Seismic waves reach surface quickly and with more energy.
74. 74. Measurement of earthquakes • Richter scale (Pg31 in textbook) 9?? Destruction impacts thousands of kilometers of land
75. 75. Factors affecting earthquake damage • Population Density • Level of Preparedness • Distance from epicentre • Time of occurance • Soil type
76. 76. Population density – High population density affects more people – Tendency for high-rise buildings increases damage – Higher literacy rate in cities mean higher chance of better preparedness. • Higher chance of survival • Better evacuation plans, trained rescue workers.
77. 77. Level of preparedness • Proper public training and social awareness leads to less panic • Repeated practice of emergency exercise leads to familiarity of action • Emergency preparedness kits raise possibility of survival
78. 78. Earthquake Preparedness
79. 79. Distance from the epicentre • Seismic energy weakens as the distance increases from the epicentre. • Locations further away from the epicentre suffer less from the earthquake.
80. 80. Time of occurance • Time of earthquake determines what people are doing and whether they are able to react. • At night, people are asleep. There is less time to react. • In the day, survivors of an earthquake are able to avoid subsequent accidents.
81. 81. Type of soil • Loose and unconsolidated (not packed tightly) soil move more in times of an earthquake. • Impact on the buildings on the surface is greater. Damage is often worse. • Liquefaction – loose soil flowing like water. • Danger of landslides after earthquakes cause more harm.
82. 82. Earthquake zones • Tendency for earthquakes to occur along crustal plate margins. • Tendency for earthquakes to be caused when subduction along destructive plates or slipping of transform plates
83. 83. Earthquake Zones
84. 84. Hazards of living in earthquake zones • Tsunamis • Disruption of services • Fire • Landslides • Loss of lives • Loss of property
85. 85. Tsunamis • Tsunami – an unusually large sea wave • Formed by sudden movement of sea floor • Possible causes – Earthquakes at subduction zones – Explosive underwater volcano eruption – Underwater landslide – Large coastal landslides
86. 86. Tsunamis • As the displaced water moves, it gathers strength and size. • When it hits the coast, large destruction is resulted.
87. 87. Disruption of services • Loss of electricity, gas and water leads to loss of essential services. • Broken pipelines also raise the risk of explosions. • Roads and railway destruction make it harder to send aid.
88. 88. Fire • Earthquakes at timings where meals are prepared raise risk of fires. • Gas pipes and electric cables that are broken lead to fire risk. • Urban areas are densely populated, hence larger fire risk.
89. 89. Landslides • Shaking of earthquakes loosen soil. • Along slopes and hills, original vegetation may no longer be able to hold soil. • Landslides and mudflows cause large damage. • Heavy rainfall after earthquakes raise the risk of landslides.
90. 90. Destruction of property and Loss of lives • Earthquakes destroy homes and buildings that are not earthquake proof. • Large amount of money needs to be spent to rebuild the property. • Urban areas with more infrastructure (roads, subways) cause even more money to repair.
91. 91. Part 4 Benefits of living near a Volcano
92. 92. 4 key benefits of living near volcanoes • Fertile soil • Precious stones and minerals, building materials • Tourism • Geothermal energy
93. 93. Fertile Soil • Lava and ash breakdown to form fertile volcanic soils • The richest soils on earth, highly favourable for agriculture • Hawaii and Bali
94. 94. Precious stones and building materials • Volcanic rocks can be rich in precious stones and minerals. • After the top layers of volcanic rocks are eroded, these can be extracted. • The volcanic rocks at Kimberley, South Africa, are the richest source of diamonds globally. • Other useful materials like sulphur can be collected from volcanic rocks. Sulphur is used to refine sugar and make matches and fertilisers.
95. 95. Tourism • Volcanic areas have dramatic landscapes. • Scenery attracts tourists for hiking and camping. • Volcanic areas are rich in history and attract visitors too. • The ruins of Pompeii, Italy. The black beaches in Bali
96. 96. Geothermal Energy • When groundwater comes in contact with the hot rocks underground, it heats up and escapes as steam. • This can be harnessed to produce Geothermal Energy. • Large turbines are used to complete this process. • Iceland uses Geothermal energy to power over 70% of their homes.
97. 97. Part 5 : Responses to Earthquakes ‘O’ Level only
98. 98. Why do people live in such places? • Favorable living conditions –Fertile soil conditions for agriculture. • No alternative location to live in. –Case of no choice
99. 99. Review Question • Turn to pg 47 of your textbook. • Using that map, let’s answer the questions in the handout.
100. 100. 3 approaches to earthquakes 1.Fatalistic approach 2.Acceptance approach 3.Adaptation approach
101. 101. Fatalistic approach • People who accept earthquakes as unavoidable. • Tend to resist evacuation in the face of an earthquake. • Common for communities in less developed countries with limited access to other places. • People who live near Mt Pinatubo.
102. 102. Acceptance approach • People who accept the risk of living in earthquake-prone areas due to the benefits of living in that area. • Benefit outweigh the costs of moving away. • Mostly accepted by the developed countries. • People of Christchurch.
103. 103. Adaptation approach • People who successfully live in earthquake-prone areas as they are well prepared. • Use of earthquake monitoring devices, risk assessment, technology to increase earthquake resistance. • Costly approach but able to save many lives and property. • People in Taiwan and Japan.
104. 104. Responding to earthquakes

### Editor's Notes

• Watch video on youtube (news report on Sgp experiencing tremors April 2012) click on lightning to open link.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Eb8xYbF_Po
• Video on Japanese emergency action training http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IaedDlN5dfoWatch once, then at kids request restart at techniques (around 3 min mark) before giving exercise.
• Draw Continental Drift Theory Diagram.
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ryrXAGY1dmE1m 14 sec vid on continental drift
• Draw oceanic divergent plate diagram
• Draw diagram of continental –continental divergence
• Video on Oceanic vs Continental plate, buckling, forming mountains and Tsunami occuring prior to reset.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ep2_axAA9Mw
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7LgZThrw9DMWatch from 7.00 to 8.00 to see deformed diagram and misguided truth about Japanese Trench.
• Click on picture to show 3 min vid on San Andreas Fault (National Geographic)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxPTLmg0ZCwWatch also the next clip on the damage to roads to LA after 94 quake click on Agent Phttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcoHJHo8d6kFinal additional clip of a classroom destroyed during a quake http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FW-TkpvKPl0
• Refer to Unit 1 Ex 2 (map of plate boundaries and Qn on possible phenomena at 3 such boundaries).
• Click on picture to watch 2 min vid on top 10 active volcanoes in the world
• Watch 6min vid on Mt St Helen eruption 1980s.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-H_HZVY1tT4
• Honey – high viscosityWater – low viscosity
• Watch video on Mt Pinatubo eruption Human impacthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQzGjGKdGvQ (4 min)Or
• Watch video on Pacific ring of fire (10 mins)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqSJDNi7Qzw
• Watch 2.25 min video footage of the plaster cast people of Pompeihttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8P352045O-oHighlight that these people were instantly turned into plaster casts by the pyroclastic flow.
• Watch video on the landslide after Mt St Helen’s eruptionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UK--hvgP2uY2 min vid
• Watch FOX news rpt on Iceland volcanic eruption grounding flightshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCWp1fGP_6M3 minsAlJazeera clip on Heathrow opening and passengers stranded in SGP flying backhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfcTMlP5UTA
• Issue Ex 5 on the negative effects of living near a volcano
• Watch view of destruction post earthquake in Christchurch(2min)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opsiKirDfdENews report on Christchurch massive quake (response by gvt)(1:30 min)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBq1-qZWmhM
• Watch NZ video on Earthquake Preparedness(4min)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-a7T9Uf-JB4
• Watch clip on tremors in SGP (who is our buffer?) Indonesia!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Eb8xYbF_Po
• Watch video of damage of 7.2 Christchurch earthquake 2011. End of vid, ask students to think if it had happened in the middle of the night, what might the death toll be looking at the look of the damage in the video?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlykXk82BlY(3min)
• Watch short clip on liquefaction (45 secs)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmVYbjiNWdsAlternate vid (forward to 50s) to watch the video of liquefaction.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PwvvYxSZ7PI
• Pic on left (vid) that shows 2004 Tsunami at Thailandhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntIwawAusDEPic on right (vid) of Bandar Aceh (initial earthquake and subsequent tsunami) 7 min. Worth watching!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ht_ZpSuJ6A4
• Watch 3 min vid on Japanese earthquakehttp://abcnews.go.com/Archives/video/jan-17-1995-earthquake-japan-9421417#nightearthquake #fire #JapanEarthquake #destruction
• Video of rice fields in Balihttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z83XgZzEOpY
• Watch video on blood diamonds , negative effect of having diamonds in the groundhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hCl_RXqoZk
• Watch video on Geothermal energy productionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfUQy86ZMpQ