THE CHALKBOARD or
a smooth hard pannel, usually green
or black, for writing on with chalk
PRACTICES OF DEDICATED
MAY HELP US IN THE
EFFECTIVE USE OF THE
Write clearly and legibly on the board. Take note that there are
children in the lastrows.
It helps if you have a hard copy of your chalkboard diagram or outline.
Thathelps you to visualize the diagram or outline you like toappear on
the chalkboard. Thatclean diagram and organized outline must match
what you do on the chalkboard.
Don’t crowd your notes on the board work. By overcrowding your
board work, your students may fail to see the key ideas. They may not
see the trees because of the forest.
Make use of colored chalk to highlight key points. Color willalso make
your board more appealing
Do not turn your backto your class while you write on the
chalkboard. Write side view as you talk. Don’t lose your eye contact
with your class.
For the sakeof order and clarity, start to write from the left side of the
board going right.
If you teach the grades and you think the lines on the chalkboard are
needed for writing exercises, the provide the lines for your board.
Look at your board work from al corners of the room to test if pupils
from all the sides of the room can read your board work.
If there is glare on the chalkboard at certain times of the day, a curtain
on the window may solve the problem.
An overheadprojector is avariant
ofslideprojectorthat isused to
displayimages to anaudience.
The Overhead Projector
Advantages of The OHP. Brown (1969):
The projector itselfis simpleto operate.
Theoverhead projector is used in the front of the room by the
instructor, who has complete control of the sequence, timing,
andmanipulationof his material.
Facing his class and observing students reactions, the
instructor can guide his audience, control its attention, and
regulatethe flow of informationin thepresentation.
The projected imagebehind theinstructor can be as large as
necessary for allintheaudience tosee; it is clear and bright,
even in fairly welllightedroom.
Since thetransparency, as it is placed on theprojector, is seen
by theinstructor exactlyas thestudentssee it on the screen,
he may point, write, or otherwise make indications upon it to
The stage (projection surface) of the projector is large (10
by 10 inches), thus allowing theteacher to write
informationwithease or to show prepared
transparencies. His/herwork appears immediatelyon the
It is specially easy for teachers and studentsto create
their own materials for use in the overhead projector.
There is an increasing number of highquality commercial
Overhead Projection Technique
Features of overhead projection :
You can show pictures and diagrams, using a pointer on the
transparency to direct attention to a detail. The silhouette of
you pointer willshow in motionin thescreen.
You can use a felt pen or wax-based pencil to add details or
to make points in the transparency during projection. The
marks of water-based pens and pencils can be removed with
a soft clothso thatthetransparency can be reused.
You can control the rate of presenting information by
covering a transparency with a sheet of paper or cardboard
(opaque material) and then exposing data as you are ready
to discuss each point. This is known as the progressive
You can superimpose additional transparency sheets as a
overlays on a base transparency so as to separate processes
and complex ideas into elements and present them in step-
You can show three dimensionalobjects from thestage of
theprojector-in silhouetteif theobject is opaque, or in color
if an object is made of transparentcolor plastic.
For special purposes you can simulatemotion, on parts of a
transparencies by using the effectsof polarized light.
You can simultaneouslyproject on an adjacent screen other
visual materials, usually slides or motionpictures, which
illustrateor apply thegeneralizationsshown on a
Other reminders on the effective use
of the OHP :
Standoff to one side of the OHP whileyou face the
students.Don’t talk to the screen.
Face the studentswhenyou talk, not thescreen.
Placethe OHPto your right, if you are right handed,and to
your left, if you are lefthanded.
Place theOHP on a table low enoughso thatit does not
blockyou or thescreen.
Have the top of thescreen tiltedforward towards the
OHP to prevent the “keystone effect”(where thetop of
the screen is larger thanthe bottom).
Avoid mistakeof including too muchdetailon each image.
Avoid large table of figures.
Don’t read thetext on your slide.
Avoid too much text.
Your presentation must be readable from afar.
We can learn from the experiences of others.
Brown (1969). Enumerates effective
practices. Let’s learn from them.
In primary grades, simple object like keys, leaves, and cutout paper shapes can be
placed directly on the projector to stimulate children’s imagination and encourage
In English composition lessons, student themes or writing exercises can be
reproduced in film by means of the heat or photo copy process. The teacher and
students can analyze the writing for style and grammar as each example is
In arithmetic, blank sheets of acetate and grease pencils can be given to selected
students. Have them prepare solutions to homework problems so the class may
evaluate and discuss their results.
Dannabel R. Duran
Prince Nino A. Morado