digital scholarship: how open publication and co-creation could transform science

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According to Wikipedia: Open science is the umbrella term of the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional. It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge.

Here (in this remixed on purpose) we will explore some of the key dimensions and opportunities behind the open science and its opportunities for digital scholars.

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  • Carroll MW (2011) Why Full Open Access Matters. PLoSBiol 9(11): e1001210. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001210
  • Spanish, English, French, and Germangeneration of knowledge is increasingly linked through outcome measures(International Index) Web of Science, Scopus, Crossref, Google Scholar, PubMed, DOAJ, LILACShttp://www.slideshare.net/AndySanIs/scielo-10434345http://www.bth.se/elpub99/ap.nsf/08c6c2f88424ad99c12566ff002a0c10/a4123207d712fcbdc12566ff00379958/$FILE/268-279.pdfhttp://www.latindex.unam.mx/noticias/resNotHis.html?id=176
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (120) > To increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. .. cover all open access scientific and scholarly journals that use a quality control system to guarantee the content (peer-review or editorial quality control ).Open Access Journal: “…journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access."open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory. Research Journal: Journals that report primary results of research or overviews of research results to a scholarly community. - SOURCE: http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=loadTempl&templ=about&uiLanguage=enFirst Monday:one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals on the Internet, solely devoted to the Internet. Since its start in May 1996, First Monday has published 1,153 papers in 184 issues, written by 1,502 different authors. In addition, nine special issues have appeared. http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/about/editorialPolicies#focusAndScope
  • http://www.slideshare.net/jisc_bce/knowledge-transfer-20
  • digital scholarship: how open publication and co-creation could transform science

    1. 1. digital scholarship: how open publication and co-creation could transform science @cristobalcobo Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University, England 1
    2. 2. 2  
    3. 3. 3   JISC. (2012, September 4). Amberthomas openness he. Technology. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/16znWvI
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    12. 12. 13  Ron Mader. (2013, July 21). Set the default to open #openaccess #oer #openjournalism. Technology. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/14BTtRN
    13. 13. 17  
    14. 14. 28  
    15. 15. 37   Cameron Neylon. (2011, July 4). Open Research: Pipedream or growing reality. Education. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/16zm85S
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    26. 26. 18   Source: Cameron Neylon. (2009, January 29). Open Access, Open Data. Open Research? Retrieved from http:// www.slideshare.net/CameronNeylon/open-access-open-data-open-research-presentation?from_search=1
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    34. 34. 26   Julien Sicot. (20131). Open Science, Open Access, Science2.0 : de nouvelles modalités pour... Technology. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/14BSxNm
    35. 35. 29   Carl-Christian Buhr. (2012, October 22). Open Science at the European Commission. Technology. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/14BTKEm
    36. 36. 30  
    37. 37. Two  features  define  an  open-­‐access  publica3on:     1.  Published  contents  are  freely  accessible  through  Internet.     2.  Readers  are  given  copyright  permission  to  republish  or   reuse  the  content  as  they  like  so  long  as  the  author  and   publisher  receive  proper  aOribu3on.     Why  Full  Open  Access  Ma<ers   What  is  open  access?   (that  does  not  mean  openly  licensed)   Public     Domain   All  Rights   Reserved   Least  restricAve                                    à                                  Most  restricAve   hOp://www.slideshare.net/mrgarin/o-­‐a-­‐w-­‐e-­‐e-­‐k2009  
    38. 38. 31  
    39. 39. 32   john wilbanks. (2010, March 2). Nfais Wilbanks. News & Politics. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/14BUs4o
    40. 40. 33  
    41. 41. 34   Open data Open source software Open discussion Open resources Open review
    42. 42. Two relevant dimensions: knowledge generation (wikis, e-science, online education, distributed R&D, open innovation, open science, peer-based production, UGC) + new models of knowledge distribution (e-journals, open repositories, open licenses, dataweb archive). 50  
    43. 43. ••Today's initiatives in cyber- infrastructure, e- Science, e-Humanities or e-Learning emerged from a period combining technological advances and economic-institutional redefinitions (Borgman, 2007) 51  
    44. 44. •Exponential transformation of information is remarkable from the quantitative perspective, but also there fragmentation of mechanisms to create, access and distribute information. 52  
    45. 45. ••New modes of scholarship of collaborative, trans-disciplinary and computationally engaged research, teaching and publication. (Burdick, et al, 2012). 53  
    46. 46. •••Digital scholarship communities collaborate in dynamic, flexible/open-ended networks, exchanging in innovation, creativity/co-authoring. (i.e open Science Federation) 54  
    47. 47. •Radical decentralization: Open values, ideology and potential of technologies born of peer-to- peer networking and wiki-ways. (Benkler, 2006) i.e. BioMed Central, Public Library of Science 55  
    48. 48.  connect  supply  and  demand  
    49. 49. Publishing journals Publishing books Post in conferences Blogging Tweeting DOAJ - OCW YouTube Channel Webinar Print-on-demand
    50. 50. First  Monday:  (1ST  of  its  kind)   15-­‐year-­‐old  open  access  journal  about  the  internet.   PLoS  ONE:  peer-­‐reviewed,  open-­‐access   resource  from  the  Public  Library  Of  Science  
    51. 51. SciELO  -­‐  ScienAfic  Electronic   Library  Online  (1998):  facilitate   coopera3ve  electronic   publishing  of  scien3fic  (peer   review)  journals.       SiELO  network  (federa3on)  is   based  on  na3onal   infrastructures  (future   sustainability).     Goal:  To  foster  the  na3onal   scien3fic  research  (expanding   the  visibility,  accessibility  and   credibility)  of  the  LA&C   scien3fic  publica3ons.   SciElo  enables:   -­‐  Searching,     -­‐  Preserving  and     -­‐  Monitoring  scien3fic   literature.       It  includes  over  760  journals,     ~300,000  ar3cles.   Impact  factor:  Over  6  million   granted  cita3on.     Over  than  12  million  ar3cles   accessed  per  month.     SiELO:  Compa3ble  with  interna3onal   standards  (Web  of  Science,  Scopus,   Crossref,  Google  Scholar,  PubMed,  DOAJ).     15  na3ons  +  South-­‐South  Coopera3on  
    52. 52. hOp://figshare.com/  
    53. 53. 59   Source: Cameron Neylon. (2010, January 22). Science in the Open. Business & Mgmt. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/CameronNeylon/science-in-the-open?from_search=2
    54. 54. 60  
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    68. 68. 79   Scientific publishing
    69. 69. 80   Jonathan Eisen. (2012, July 13). Jonathan Eisen talk on “Open Science at #BOSC2012 #ISMB. Entertainment. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/16znpdq Existing Barriers: Impact Factor Money raising efforts Immobilism ‒ Lobby False positive: 1.  Lack of peer review or quality 2.  Only Journal copyright protects authors 3.  Poor distribution
    70. 70. 81  
    71. 71. 82  Björn Brembs. (2011, August 30). What s wrong with scholarly publishing today? II. Business & Mgmt. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/14BT7L5
    72. 72. 83  
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    75. 75. 86   Where you publish is more important to us than what you publish “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted
    76. 76. 35  
    77. 77. 87   Current tensions that face the academic community: •  • Tradition (800 centuries and counting......) •  • Proprietary value of information. •  • Revenues (sure?) •  • Plagiarism (yes, but...) •  • Misunderstanding (access vs open or quality) •  • Funding model hOp://www.flickr.com/photos/franganillo/3554010670/sizes/z/in/photostream/   Cornelius Puschmann. (2008). New Paradigms In Scholarly Communication (Ibm). Technology. Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/16zocuJ
    78. 78. 88   How is 'impact' measured? “ Your article was published in a journal with an Impact Factor of X hOp://www.flickr.com/photos/macrj/7678960512/sizes/l/in/photostream/  
    79. 79. 89   How could 'impact' be measured? Authority 3.0 (Michael Jensen) •  • X citations (de-duped from Google Scholar, Scopus, WoSc) •  • prestige of the publisher + peer pre-reviewers, commenters •  • citations (scholarly, hyperlinks, social bookmarks) •  • expert ratings (f1000.com; Peer Reviewers) •  • community rating& commenting (Digging; Rating) •  • social media coverage (bookmarked/discussed/commented) •  • it was viewed X times in X journal/communities •  • proportion-quoted-by-others: out in Web/ valued-links •  • author's participation in other valued projects •  • inclusion in in syllabi and other indexes Authority  2.0  and  3.0  (PDF)  originally  presented  at  50th  anniversary  celebra3on  of  Hong  Kong  University  Press,  11/2006.  hOp://bit.ly/17jDV1f   Björn Brembs. (2009, January 21). Reputation, authority and incentives. Or: How to get rid of the Imp... Retrieved from http://slidesha.re/16zoylf
    80. 80. drivers 90  
    81. 81. •EU Commission + ESRC: Accelerate open access. OA journals + databases facilitating mechanism of open peer revision + visibility/impact (avoid duplication). 1. Technology: Coordination mechanisms - exchange and codification of tacit knowledge, simplifying its translation into more findable and interchangeable resources (Heimeriks & Vasileiadou, 2008). (i.e. PeerJ, Rubriq) 91  
    82. 82. •Books become a dialogical tool not simply “finished + “published but open to dynamics + iterations (i.e. versioning, crowd-source, peer reviewed, remix). Burdick (et al., 2012) 2. Co-creation: Networking +Coordination +Cooperation + Collaboration. (Rheingold, 2012) The higher the level of negotiation the more complex the set of skills required. (i.e. Flat World Knowledge, Creative Crowdwriting) 92  
    83. 83. •Do-it-yourself publishing: Blogs, photos + videos (Nielsen, 2011). Less clear distinction between popular and more specialized scholarship (Burdick, 2012). 3. Dissemination: New open-access policies (open repositories/journals) almost anyone anywhere. “If it doesn t spread, it s dead Jenkins et al. (2010). 4 R: reuse, revise, remix and redistribute. (Wiley, 2010).   (i.e. CreateSpace or Blurb) 93  
    84. 84. •~20 mill. papers over 50y: cross Disciplinary teams dominate solo authors and frequently more cited than individuals (Wuchty, 2007) •4. Co-Authorship/beta: From solitary genius toward the virtually boundless community of digital scholars (Burdick, et al, 2012)). 94  
    85. 85. •a) the existing practices of peer-review to assure the quality of knowledge creation / dissemination b) Mode 2, post-normal science + technoscience (Burdick, et al, 2012). Critique: Need to recognize distinction between DIY scholarship and high scholarship. •• (i.e Wikipedia) 95  
    86. 86. •Stick or the carrot: academic mechanisms of recognition (in many cases) are limited to metrics such as h-index' affecting to possibilities to facilitate peers based collaboration (Hirsch, 2005) 96  
    87. 87. •the current academic assessment systems which reward scholarship are dysfunctional and potentially cause more harm than good. (Adler and Harzing, 2009) 97  
    88. 88. Due to these elements of exclusiveness/ individualism, knowledge-sharing in academic organizations are often inefficient (Seonghee and Boryung, 2008) The highly competitive environment enhance lack of partnership (Kanwar, Kodhandaraman, and Umar, 2010). 98  
    89. 89. Will universities institutionalize approaches (learning and research) grounded in collaboration instead of celebrity and competition? 99  
    90. 90. The shift in knowledge landscape is disturbing to people familiar with the earlier paradigm . Chesbrough (2006) 100  
    91. 91. •More appropriate institutional recognition are needed (i.e. A tenure evaluation system that recognizes the value of more flexible mechanisms of knowledge creation and new publication formats). Is not easy to determine to what extent traditional and new practices of scholarship will coexist. (i.e. Reinventing Discovery) 101  
    92. 92. Appropriating these tools/practices requires a new set of skills (i.e. Curation, Editing, and Modelling) to work across an information ecosystem full of new intermediaries. 102  
    93. 93. New cultural practices: institutional flexibility (i.e. diversifying tenure track, re- understand concepts such as academic visibility or digital influence). 103  
    94. 94. 104  
    95. 95. 105   Sources   Cameron  Neylon.  (2010,  January  22).  Science  in  the  Open.  Business  &  Mgmt.  Retrieved  from  hOp://www.slideshare.net/ CameronNeylon/science-­‐in-­‐the-­‐open?from_search=2     Cameron  Neylon.  (2009,  January  29).  Open  Access,  Open  Data.  Open  Research?  Retrieved  from  hOp://www.slideshare.net/ CameronNeylon/open-­‐access-­‐open-­‐data-­‐open-­‐research-­‐presenta3on?from_search=1     Julien  Sicot.  (2013,  May  21).  Open  Science,  Open  Access,  Science2.0 :  de  nouvelles  modalités  pour...  Technology.  Retrieved  from   hOp://www.slideshare.net/jsicot/open-­‐science-­‐open-­‐access-­‐science20-­‐de-­‐nouvelles-­‐modalits-­‐pour-­‐la-­‐communica3on-­‐ scien3fique?from_search=3     Björn  Brembs.  (2011,  August  30).  What’s  wrong  with  scholarly  publishing  today?  II.  Business  &  Mgmt.  Retrieved  from  hOp:// slidesha.re/14BT7L5     Ron  Mader.  (2013,  July  21).  Set  the  default  to  open  #openaccess  #oer  #openjournalism.  Technology.  Retrieved  from  hOp:// slidesha.re/14BTtRN     Carl-­‐Chris3an  Buhr.  (2012,  October  22).  Open  Science  at  the  European  Commission.  Technology.  Retrieved  from  hOp://slidesha.re/ 14BTKEm     John  Wilbanks.  (2010,  March  2).  Nfais  Wilbanks.  News  &  Poli3cs.  Retrieved  from  hOp://slidesha.re/14BUs4o     Cameron  Neylon.  (2011,  July  4).  Open  Research:  Pipedream  or  growing  reality.  Educa3on.  Retrieved  from  hOp://slidesha.re/ 16zm85S     Jonathan  Eisen.  (2012,  July  13).  Jonathan  Eisen  talk  on  “Open  Science”  at  #BOSC2012  #ISMB.  Entertainment.  Retrieved  from  hOp:// slidesha.re/16znpdq     JISC.  (2012,  September  4).  Amberthomas  openness  he.  Technology.  Retrieved  from  hOp://slidesha.re/16znWvI     Cornelius  Puschmann.  (2008).  New  Paradigms  In  Scholarly  CommunicaRon  (Ibm).  Technology.  Retrieved  from  hOp://slidesha.re/ 16zocuJ     Björn  Brembs.  (2009,  January  21).  ReputaRon,  authority  and  incenRves.  Or:  How  to  get  rid  of  the  Imp...  Retrieved  from  hOp:// slidesha.re/16zoylf  
    96. 96. @cristobalcobo   hOp://3ny.cc/ppts   Oxford  Internet  Ins3tute  Research  Fellow.   106  
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