‘From the lab into the real world’ [A User-Centered Approach]


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This presentation aims to understand and promote benefits of user-centricity and user-cantered innovation in industries. This approach is transforming the value chain and business models traditional with an offer that is towards “instant custom” for the consumer on the one hand, and an allocation of value between institutional and private.

This is not just a living lab approach (although some lessons can be learnt) but a complex endeavour requiring deeper technology integration, business models with broader range of stakeholders and user populations with socio-economic diversity representing communities across Europe and beyond.

Future Internet Assembly Dublin 2013

Published in: Technology, Design

‘From the lab into the real world’ [A User-Centered Approach]

  1. 1. When we learn all the answers,they change the questions @cristobalcobo  oxford  internet  ins1tute  
  2. 2. Old ParadigmNew Paradigmconsumer  consumer  company  company  
  3. 3. “Any customer can have a car painted anycolour that he wants so long as it is black “*(h.ford,1922)Remark  about  the  Model  T  in  1909,  published  in  his  autobiography  My  Life  and  Work  (1922)  
  4. 4. “individual  playing  both  roles  consumers  of  services  as  well  as  creators  of  added  value  services”.  
  5. 5. Challenge:  alignment  of  engagement  
  6. 6. hEp://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=user&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=  
  7. 7. hEp://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=user%2Ccommunity&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=  
  8. 8. hEp://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=user%2Ccommunity%2C+experience&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=  
  9. 9. hEp://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=user%2Ccommunity%2Cexperience%2Cuser+-­‐+driven&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=  
  10. 10. A  B  testbed  
  11. 11.  The  Documentary  Network  by  Windows  Phone  Design  Studio  youtube.com/watch?v=lciYKwVLTuk  Connecting - Trends in UI, Interaction, Experience Design    
  12. 12. User- center design(‘pull’)
  13. 13. Domain  Landscape  of  the  Living  Lab  Research  Map    (Pallot  et  al.,  2010)  
  14. 14. User-centricityUser-centred Design Tools in FI Projectsques9onnaires  focus  groups  interviews  prac9cal  workshops  shadowing  cultural  probes  pen  &  paper  mock-­‐ups  fully  func9onal  prototypes  in-­‐home  observa9on  think-­‐aloud  sessions  user  diaries  field  studies  personas  or  scenarios  eye-­‐tracking  studies  scenario-­‐based  focus  groups  s9mulus  material  like  comic  strips,  videos,  theatre  performances,  drama9sed  stories   usability  tes9ng  longitudinal  evalua9on  weekly  teleconferences   beta  launch  Source: 29 0f 55 respondents (working on 35 different Future Internet projects) use this tools (2012).
  15. 15. bottom up innovation(‘push’)
  16. 16. •  ICT change power relations in (almost) all domains.•  Technologies can be understood as a trend amplifier. •  Can empower users of all kinds: citizens, consumers,workers, patients, audiences...(van  Dijk,  2010)  2011  
  17. 17. How to engage with users in order to adopt anactive role in co-creation & co-design?
  18. 18. •  SOPA  &  PIPA  protest  [2012]    •  English  Wikipedia  +~7,000  websites  coordinated  a  service  blackout,  to  raise  awareness.    •  160  million  people  viewed  Wikipedias  banner.    •  Google  collected  +7  million  signatures.  •  BoycoEs  of  companies  and  organiza1ons  that  support  the  legisla1on.  
  19. 19. Network  Type:   Architecture   Openness   Control   Modulariza9on  3.0  Collabora1on       Many-­‐to-­‐Many   Managed   High   High    2.0  Contribu1ng        Many-­‐to-­‐Many   Networked   Moderate    (i.e.  reputa1on)  Moderate    (i.e.  simple  task)  1.0  Sharing     One-­‐to-­‐many   Open   Low   Low  (DuEon,  2008)  3  Levels  of  Collabora9ve  Networks  Organiza9ons  
  20. 20. Clay  Shirkys  Cogni1ve  Surplus:  Crea1vity  and  Generosity  in  a  Connected  Age  reCAPTCHA    is  a  type  of  challenge-­‐response  that  ask  users  to  enter  words  seen  in  distorted  text  images  on  screen  (it  helps  digi1ze  the  text  of  books,  while  protec1ng  websites  from  bots).    The  system  has  been  reported  as  displaying  over  100  million  CAPTCHAs  every  day.  
  21. 21. New ideas that can be turned intoapplications and add added value.The ability to collaborate between people:a) of different backgrounds (micro-contexts),b) with different perspectives, andc) possessing different knowledge.Human centric systemic innovationinstruments (encouraging the interactionbetween all stakeholders).Eriksson  et  al.,2005  co-creation/co-innovationKhan  Academy  Lite  Raspberry  Pi  hLp://kalite.learningequality.org  
  22. 22. (Pallot  et  al.,  2010)  Contextual & social based adoption & adaptation of ICT:•  Living  Labs  +  User  Driven  Innova9on  +  User  Centred  Design  +  User  Created  Content  +  User  Group  Experience  (socio-­‐emo1onal)  …BUT•  The  principles  (usability,  accessibility  or  technology  customiza9on)  are  more  manifested  in  theore9cal  considera9ons  rather  than  in  prac9ce.    •  Significant  number  of    “one-­‐size-­‐fits-­‐all”  paradigm  is  common  in  the  market.  40,000  solu1on  submissions  [200,000  solvers  -­‐200  countries]  Awards:  $5,000  to  $1+M    
  23. 23. problems and challenges
  24. 24. Communications tools don tget socially interesting untilthey get technologicallyboring (Shirky, 2008)Interesting socialinnovations maynot be interestingtechnically(Bernstein, et al, 2011)Flash  mobs  strike  again  for  the  9th  annual  ‘no  pants’  subway  ride  Social  Media’s  Influence  on  the  Arab  Spring  Privacy  or  data  protec1on?  
  25. 25. (Bernstein,  Ackerman,  Chi  &  Miller,  2011).  Conflation of usefulness and usabilityUsefulness: asks whether a system solves an important problem.Usability: asks how users interact with the system.“In the technology industrymany time features &functionalities is prioritizedrather than usefulnesswww.leapmotion.comhEp://theamazingios6maps.tumblr.com  ‘The  most  beau1ful,  powerful  mapping  service  ever’  iOS6                                                        Google  Map  
  26. 26. Challenge: How to create meaningful synergiesbetween users & technology?  Problems  in  the  complex  innova1on  systems.      •  Suboptimal degree of interaction with users (i.e.  only  a  few  companies  effec1vely  involve  users  in  their  innova1on  process).    •  Discrepancy between theory and practice.  (i.e    early  involvement  of  users  par1cularly  in  early  stage  of  the  projects.)      •  Mechanisms to integrate increasingly multidisciplinary knowledge(gathered  in  diverse  interac1on  contexts)    •  Adequate translation and transformation of user insights (into  more  technical  requirements).      •  Path dependency& lock-in (i.e    difficult  to  break  into  new  grounds/paradigms).    (Eriksson  et  al.,2005  and  De  Moor,  et  al  2010)  
  27. 27. (Fiedler,  2011,  Offenberg  &  Pipek,  2008;  Seserv.Org  ).    Future Internetresearch towards an“Open DevelopmentModel differentstakeholders combiningefforts and benefit.conclusionUsers at the center of the Internet Ecosystem
  28. 28. Vtbcjmjuz jt nou fnovhi uo jnqsowf toguxbsf qoosmz eftjhnfec1.  High-flexible software architectures (from feedback toco-creation + cognitive surplus).2. Legislation need to keep pace with the ever-increasingspeed of user-driven change (i.e. 3D printers)
  29. 29. 3. Systematic participation of users (iterative loop).4. Cross-disciplinary methodologies (and knowledgeintegration tools to deal with complexity).
  30. 30. 5. Adopting various IPRmodels (providing more flexibleuses).6. Clear incentives (combiningextrinsic with intrinsicmotivation) I.e. pull-push
  31. 31. 7. QoE matters morethan QoS to users.8. Open to differentcultures, languages(but localisation‐friendly, contextbased).
  32. 32. 9. Increase transparency (but also awarenessand simplicity) about data uses.
  33. 33. @cristobalcobo  hEp://1ny.cc/ppts  Oxford  Internet  Ins1tute  Research  Fellow.  
  34. 34. References  •  Almirall,  E.,  &  Wareham,  J.  (2008).  Living  Labs  and  open  innova1on:  roles  and  applicability.  The  Electronic  Journal  for  Virtual  OrganizaDons  and  Networks,  10(3),  21–46.  •  Bernstein,  M.  S.,  Ackerman,  M.  S.,  Chi,  E.  H.,  &  Miller,  R.  C.  (2011).  The  trouble  with  social  compu1ng  systems  research.  In  Proceedings  of  the  2011  annual  conference  extended  abstracts  on  Human  factors  in  compuDng  systems  (pp.  389–398).  Retrieved  from  hEp://dl.acm.org/cita1on.cfm?id=1979618  •  Coetzee,  H.,  Du  Toit,  I.-­‐M.,  &  Herselman,  M.  (2012).  Living  Labs  in  South  Africa:  An  analysis  based  on  five  case  studies.  Retrieved  from  hEp://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/handle/10204/6082  •  De  Moor,  K.,  Berte,  K.,  De  Marez,  L.,  Joseph,  W.,  Deryckere,  T.,  &  Martens,  L.  (2010).  User-­‐driven  innova1on?  Challenges  of  user  involvement  in  future  technology  analysis.  Science  and  Public  Policy,  37(1),  51–61.  •  DuEon,  W.  (2008).  Collabora1ve  network  organiza1ons:  new  technical,  managerial  and  social  infrastructures  to  capture  the  value  of  distributed  intelligence.  Retrieved  from  hEp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1302893  •  Eriksson,  M.,  Niitamo,  V.-­‐P.,  &  Kulkki,  S.  (2005).  State-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art  in  u1lizing  Living  Labs  approach  to  user-­‐centric  ICT  innova1on-­‐a  European  approach.  Lulea:  Center  for  Distance-­‐spanning  Technology.  Lulea  University  of  Technology  Sweden:  Lulea.  Online  under:  hSp://www.  cdt.  ltu.  se/main.  php/SOA_LivingLabs.  pdf.  Retrieved  from  hEp://www.vinnova.se/upload/dokument/verksamhet/1ta/stateozheart_livinglabs_eriksson2005.pdf  •  Nicolas  nova.  (2009,  October  15).  Field  research  and  interacDon  design.  Retrieved  from  hEp://www.slideshare.net/nicolasnova/field-­‐research-­‐and-­‐interac1on-­‐design  •  Pallot,  M.,  Trousse,  B.,  Senach,  B.,  &  Scapin,  D.  (2010).  Living  Lab  Research  Landscape:  From  User  Centred  Design  and  User  Experience  towards  User  Cocrea1on.  Presented  at  the  First  European  Summer  School  “Living  Labs.”  Retrieved  from  hEp://hal.inria.fr/inria-­‐00612632  •  Paul  Isakson.  (2008,  March  22).  What’s  Next  In  MarkeDng  &  AdverDsing.  News  &  Poli1cs.  Retrieved  from  hEp://www.slideshare.net/paulisakson/whats-­‐next-­‐in-­‐marke1ng-­‐adver1sing-­‐318143  •  J.A.G.M.  van  Dijk.  “Conceptual  Framework”.  In:  Study  on  the  Social  Impact  of  ICT  (2010),  pp.  1–30.  •  Hess,  J.,  Offenberg,  S.,  &  Pipek,  V.  (2008).  Community  driven  development  as  par1cipa1on?:  involving  user  communi1es  in  a  sozware  design  process.  In  Proceedings  of  the  Tenth  Anniversary  Conference  on  ParDcipatory  Design  2008  (pp.  31–40).  Retrieved  from  hEp://dl.acm.org/cita1on.cfm?id=1795240  •  Fiedler,  M.,  et  al.  Future  Internet  Assembly  Research  Roadmap–Towards  Framework  8:  Research  PrioriDes  for  the  Future  Internet.  Technical  report,  Future  Internet  Assembly  Working  Group,  2011.