Conditions Required to Implement    Open Educational Resource (OER)    Practices in Latin American Higher                 ...
[1.] diffusion of  innovations    [radical – incremental]
Rogers, Everett M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations.                                                                      ...
Schumpeter, Joseph Alois. 1939. Business cycles: atheoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of thecapitalist proce...
[2.] the hype     [ocw]
2001/04/04The announcement on the front page of the New YorkTimes noted that major universities such as Stanfordand the Un...
Incremental innovationRadical innovation        http://www.slideshare.net/mrgarin/o-a-w-e-e-k2009
[3.] from oer to oep      beyond traditional repositories Peer-to-Peer University * University of the People* MITx *  Mass...
Accessible is not the same than Open      What is open access?      (that does not mean openly licensed)     Public       ...
Peer-to-Peer University * University of the People* MITx  Massive Open Online Course * OER University * Udacity           ...
[4.] latinamerican      context
Latin America: More than 590 million people. Over 20 countries.       Over 2,500 universities and more than 7,000 other   ...
Lack of research about OER in Latin America1.Brunner, J.J. 2007. Universidad y sociedad en América Latina. Instituto de In...
a. Universia (http://ocw.universia.net). Network of more than   1000 universities and HE institutions (10 million students...
Big - visibility                                                                             Visible reuse & production of...
[5.] change resistance
Barriers that affect a broaderadoption of open content  Hattaka (2009):  educational rules and  restrictions, language, re...
[6.] challenges“It is a global development, although most resources arecurrently produced in developed countries” (OECD, 2...
a. Access: from archipelago to spaghettiFrom the ‘long tail’ towards the semantic *Metadata+
b. Platforms: from mono- to multi-Interoperability (technic- & institutional )
Attribution Share-Alike Non-commercial No-modify Educationalc. Licenses: awarenesscreate-remix-preserve-propagate
The distribution of all the Wikipedia articles         Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011) Geographies of the ...
e. Incentives: produce & use quality –New teaching/researching and business models
The Openness is not exclusivelytechnological but cultural     OER are culture objects  (context, language, backgrou       ...
How?  Tuesday 17 April at 15.45 hrs. (258 OportUnidad)  www.oportunidadproject.euCristobal Cobo, Oxford Internet Institute...
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Conditions Required to Implement Open Educational Resource (OER) Practices in Latin American Higher Education

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Cambridge 2012: Innovation and Impact - Openly Collaborating to Enhance Education

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  • Goldberg, Carey. (2001). “New York Time.” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/04/us/auditing-classes-at-mit-on-the-web-and-free.html (Accessed January 21, 2012).
  • Ehlers (2011) suggest that the OEP is seen is as a second phase of this open movement, where organizations such as the International Council for Open and Distance Education, remarks the importance to “promote innovative pedagogical models, and respect and empower learners as co-producers on their lifelong learning path. OEP address the whole OER governance community: policy makers, managers and administrators of organizations, educational professionals and learners” (ICDE, n.d.).
  • Hatakka, M. (2009). 'Build it and They Will Come? - Inhibiting Factors for Reuse of Open Content in Developing Countries'. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 37(5), 1-16.
  • Challenges Sustainability (cost-benefit)IPIncentives and barriersOEP – informal learningIntegrate UCG resourcesIncrease awarenessAvailability ≠ Quiality
  • Conditions Required to Implement Open Educational Resource (OER) Practices in Latin American Higher Education

    1. 1. Conditions Required to Implement Open Educational Resource (OER) Practices in Latin American Higher Education Cristobal Cobo, research fellowOxford Internet Institute – University of Oxford
    2. 2. [1.] diffusion of innovations [radical – incremental]
    3. 3. Rogers, Everett M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. 3Dealing with different levels of uncertainty and social recognition
    4. 4. Schumpeter, Joseph Alois. 1939. Business cycles: atheoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of thecapitalist process. Philadelphia: Porcupine Press.Radical innovation (i.e. exploration). It often leads to prominentimprovements in performance that break with the past. RI creates a dramaticchange in products, processes that transforms an existing sector, market orcreates new ones.Incremental innovation (i.e. exploitation). This occurs when an organizationbecomes better at what it is doing well. It requires formalised roles andmechanisms (high planned procedures). Improvements in existing services toreinforce the position.
    5. 5. [2.] the hype [ocw]
    6. 6. 2001/04/04The announcement on the front page of the New YorkTimes noted that major universities such as Stanfordand the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)were being more restrained: “everybody else besidesMIT is in the position of being more cautious andwatching to see what Internet strategy works best”(Goldberg 2001).The Guardian remarked that only “two virtualuniversities in the world - Athabasca in Canada andanother in Finland” had adopted such a radical strategyof openness.
    7. 7. Incremental innovationRadical innovation http://www.slideshare.net/mrgarin/o-a-w-e-e-k2009
    8. 8. [3.] from oer to oep beyond traditional repositories Peer-to-Peer University * University of the People* MITx * Massive Open Online Course * OER University * Udacity
    9. 9. Accessible is not the same than Open What is open access? (that does not mean openly licensed) Public All Rights Domain Reserved Least restrictive  Most restrictivehttp://www.slideshare.net/mrgarin/o-a-w-e-e-k2009 OER is not equal to OEP http://www.slideshare.net/openmichigan/find-use-remix-and-create-open-learning-materials
    10. 10. Peer-to-Peer University * University of the People* MITx Massive Open Online Course * OER University * Udacity It makes little sense to talk about OER independently of Open EducationalOEP Implications Practices (OEP) {Farrow, 2011}• Informal teaching does not conferdegrees but relevant learning. Are the universities ready to play this new game? The distributed revolution (in English)
    11. 11. [4.] latinamerican context
    12. 12. Latin America: More than 590 million people. Over 20 countries. Over 2,500 universities and more than 7,000 other (non-university) higher education institutions.
    13. 13. Lack of research about OER in Latin America1.Brunner, J.J. 2007. Universidad y sociedad en América Latina. Instituto de Investigaciones en Educación. Universidad Veracruzana.2.Cruz González, D.E., D.J.L. García Cuevas, and D.E. González Suárez. (2010). “Las universidades de América Latina y El Caribe y el avance de las sociedades a través de la innovación y lagestión tecnológica.” Universidad y Sociedad 2(1).
    14. 14. a. Universia (http://ocw.universia.net). Network of more than 1000 universities and HE institutions (10 million students). Earlier promoted MIT OCW materials translated. Now over 70 Latin American universities (10 countries) are now registered in OCW Universia (196 OCW offered). High concentration (48%) in a small number of (4) universities.b. Temoa (http://www.temoa.info ) public catalogue that indexes OER. It offers a public and multilingual catalogue built to simplify the finding of OER by providing specialized and collaborative search tools. It registers more than 30,000 educational resources.c. LA DOAJ: SciELO (http://www.scielo.org) and REDALYC (http://redalyc.uaemex.mx). Each one includes more than 600 journal titles (200,000 articles) and 4 million granted citation.
    15. 15. Big - visibility Visible reuse & production of licensed (institutional) OER. “preferential attachment” Institutional repositories. (Barabási, 2000) GovernmentsInvisibility Little - visibility Staff & students reuse of digital resources in /around the curriculum. Folksonomies (co-creation) {UGC in flickr, scribd, slideshare, youtube} “White, D. Manton, M. JISC-funded OER Impact Study, University of Oxford, 2011” http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearning/oer/OERTheValueOfReuseInHigherEducation.pdf
    16. 16. [5.] change resistance
    17. 17. Barriers that affect a broaderadoption of open content Hattaka (2009): educational rules and restrictions, language, relevance, access, t echnical resources, quality, intellectual property, awareness, computer literacy, teaching capacity, and traditions.
    18. 18. [6.] challenges“It is a global development, although most resources arecurrently produced in developed countries” (OECD, 2007).
    19. 19. a. Access: from archipelago to spaghettiFrom the ‘long tail’ towards the semantic *Metadata+
    20. 20. b. Platforms: from mono- to multi-Interoperability (technic- & institutional )
    21. 21. Attribution Share-Alike Non-commercial No-modify Educationalc. Licenses: awarenesscreate-remix-preserve-propagate
    22. 22. The distribution of all the Wikipedia articles Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011) Geographies of the Worlds Knowledge. Ed. Flick, C. M., London, Convoco! Edition.d. Literacies (awareness): prosumer - filter & (re)use[economy of attention]Bulger, Meyer, De la Flor, Terras, Wyatt, Jirotka, Eccles, Madsen (2011) Reinventing Research in the Humanities: Information Practices
    23. 23. e. Incentives: produce & use quality –New teaching/researching and business models
    24. 24. The Openness is not exclusivelytechnological but cultural OER are culture objects (context, language, backgrou nd) Its modification (customization) can be more time consuming than a creation of new ones (Hattaka, 2009)Open ≠ SustainableAccess ≠ UseUse ≠ LearningAvailability ≠ QualityFormal Learning ≠ Informal LearningInstitutional Creation ≠ Institutional Adoption Ochoa, X.; Sprock, A.S.; Silveira, I.F.; , "Collaborative open textbooks for Latin America - The LATIn project," Information Society (i-Society), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.398-403, 27-29 June 2011 URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5978479&isnumber=5978433
    25. 25. How? Tuesday 17 April at 15.45 hrs. (258 OportUnidad) www.oportunidadproject.euCristobal Cobo, Oxford Internet Institute, UKhttp://blogs.oii.ox.ac.uk/cobo@cristobalcobo This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.

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