"Behaviorism...holds that the subject matter of human psychology is the behavior of the human being. Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviorist, who has been trained always as an experimentalist, holds, further, that belief in the existence of consciousness goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic."
Behaviorism Let’s contemplate the ensuing challenges:1. Explain the basic of principles of BEHAVIORISM2. Make a simple plan applying the primary laws of learning3. Determine how to use rewards in the learning process moreeffectively WHAT IS BEHAVIORISM?
Which is which … (YOU’RE A WITCH!!! ) BEHAVIORISM is an attitude. BEHAVIORISM is a doctrine. CHOOSE WISELY! (All is fair in LOVE and WAR .)
Loosely speaking … BEHAVIORISM is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposal, states that all things that organisms do– including acting, thinking, and feeling, can should be regarded as behaviors.
Strictly speaking … Let’s consider the following three sets of claims:1. Psychology is the science of behavior.2. The source of behavior is external, not internal.3. Mental terms can be replaced by behavioral terms. (Psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns or modifying the environment.)
Individuals behind BEHAVIORISM Ivan Pavlov – 1849-1936 Pavlov wanted to see if external stimuli could affect the salivation process – he rang a bell at the same time he gave the experimental dogs food. – After a while, the dogs -- which before only salivated when they saw and ate their food -- would begin to salivate when the bell rang, even if no food were present. – Classical Conditioning A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes conditioned by being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Pavlov also had the following conclusions: Stimulus Generalization – Once the dog has learned to salivate at the sound of the bell, it will salivate at other similar sounds. Extinction – If you stop pairing the bell with the food, salivation will eventually cease in response to the bell. Spontaneous discovery – Extinguished responses can “recovered” after an elapsed time, but will soon extinguish again if the dog is not presented with food.
Discrimination – The dog could learn to discriminate between similar bells and discern which bell would result in the presentation of food and which wouldn’t. Higher-Order Conditioning – Once the dog has been conditioned to associate the bell with food, another unconditioned stimulus, such as light may be flashed at the same time that the bell is rung. Eventually, the dog will salivate at the flash of the light without the sound of the bell.
Individuals behind BEHAVIORISM Edward Thorndike (1874 – 1949) – One of the most influential non-pavlovian American psychologists – Theory consisted of research with animals Placed cats into a puzzle box so the cat would have to try to escape in order to get food. Concluded that cats obtained food only through “trial and error”. – Theory was later modified by his most famous student, B.F. Skinner
Thorndike’s theory of Connectionism Learning has taken place when a strong connection or bond between stimulus and response is formed.
Law of Readiness The Law of Readiness means a person can learn when physically and mentally adjusted (ready) to receive stimuli. Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn, and they will not learn much if they see no reason for learning. If trainees have a strong purpose, a clear objective and a sound reason for learning, they usually make more progress than trainees who lack motivation. When trainees are ready to learn, they are more willing to participate in the learning process, and this simplifies the instructors job. If outside responsibilities or worries weigh heavily on trainees minds or if their personal problems seem unsolvable, they may have little interest in learning.
Law of ExerciseThe Law of Exercise stresses the idea that repetition is basic to the development of adequate responses; things most often repeated are easiest remembered. The mind can rarely recall new concepts or practices after a single exposure, but every time it is practiced, learning continues and is enforced. The instructor must provide opportunities for trainees to practice or repeat the task. Repetition consists of many types of activities, including recall, review, restatement, manual drill and physical application. Remember that practice makes permanent, not perfect unless the task is taught correctly.
Law of Effect This law involves the emotional reaction of the learner.Learning will always be much more effective when a feelingof satisfaction, pleasantness, or reward accompanies or is aresult of the learning process. Learning is strengthened whenit is accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling and thatit is weakened when it is associated with an unpleasantexperience. An experience that produces feelings of defeat,frustration, anger or confusion in a trainee is unpleasant.Instructors should be cautious about using negativemotivation. Usually it is better to show trainees that a problemis not impossible, but is within their capability to understandand solve.
Learning requires both practice and rewards (laws of effect /exercise) A series of S-R connections can be chained together if they belong to the same action sequence (law of readiness). Transfer of learning occurs because of previously encountered situations. Intelligence is a function of the number of connections learned.
Individuals behind BEHAVIORISM Who am I?(perhaps, the fusion of DODENG DAGA and MOJO JOJO … hmmm :D)
History of Behaviorism John B. Watson (1878 – 1958) – American “Founding Father of Behaviorism” – “Little Albert” Application of Classical Conditioning to induce learned fear in baby Albert
Presuppositions of Behaviorism Man has no soul or mind Behavior is a product of conditioning We do not consciously act We are not responsible for our actions
History of Behaviorism B.F. Skinner (1904 – 1990) – American student of Thorndike He created the principles of Operant Conditioning, which include: 1. Positive Reinforcement 2. Negative Reinforcement 3. Punishment 4. Extinction
Operant Conditioning Positive reinforcement: Good job! Here, have some candy. Negative reinforcement: Good job! No chores for you today. Punishment: Bad boy! No dessert for you.
ExtinctionJose has been a bad boy. He shouts out answersin class instead of raising his hand like everyoneelse.–The teacher tolerates this for 2-3 days but thendecides to ignore Jose whenever he does this.–When Jose continues this behavior, the teachermakes a greater effort to ignore Jose.–Soon, Jose stops the behavior. (Wolfgang, 2001)
Shaping of BehaviorBehavioral ChainingReinforcement SchedulesFixed Interval SchedulesVariable Interval SchedulesFixed Ratio SchedulesVariable Ratio Schedules
Implications of Operant Conditioning Practice should take the form of question – answer frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual steps. Require that the learner makes a response for every frame and receives immediate feedback.
Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always correct and hence, a positive reinforcement. Ensure the good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary reinforcers such as verbal praise, prizes and good grades.