Robert M. Gagné (1916-2002)• PhD in Psychology – Brown University (1940)• Professor, Connecticut College (1940-49)• Professor, Penn State University (1945-46)• Director, US Air Force Perceptual and Motor Skills Laboratory (1949-58)• Professor, Dept of Education Research, Florida State University (1969-2002)• Conditions of Learning (1965-1985)
Conditions of learning• Gagne specified several different types of learning.• He believed that different internal and external conditions are needed to each type of learning.• He provided 5 categories of Learning.• He also provided 9 phases of learning and instruction events that served as a basis for the sequencing of instruction.
Gagne’s principles1.Different Instruction is required for different learning outcomes.
The Nine Phases of LearningDescription Learning phrase Instructional eventPreparation of Attending 1. Gaining attentionLearning Giving learner a stimulus to ensure reception of coming instruction Expectancy 2. Informing the learner of the objective Telling learner what they will be able to do for the instruction Retrieval 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning Asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge
The Nine Phases of LearningDescription Learning phrase Instructional eventAcquisition and Selective perception 4. Presenting the stimulusperformance Displaying the content Semantic encoding 5. Providing learner guidance Supplying organization and relevance to enhance understanding Responding 6. Eliciting performance Asking learners to respond, demonstrating learning Reinforcement 7. Providing Feedback Giving immediate feedback on learners performance.
The Nine Phases of LearningDescription Learning phrase Instructional eventTransfer of learning Retrieval 8. Assessing performance Providing feedback to learners more performance for reinforcement Generalization 9. Enhancing retention and transfer Providing diverse practice to generalize the capability
Educational ApplicationsGagne addresses several issues of importance in the classroom:1. Learner characteristics2. Cognitive Processes and Instruction3. The Social Context for Learning 15
1. Learner Characteristics• Individual differences Cognitive strategies Rate of learning Entry capabilities < may be assessed at beginning points Compensating for individual differences: Small group instruction Tutorial mode Independent learning Individualized instruction systems 16
1. Learner Characteristics• Readiness Lower skills in the hierarchy of intellectual skills have been acquired (essential prerequisite capabilities). The essential rules and concepts has been grasp and understood.• Motivation To design an effective instruction, we need to identify students’ motives and channel those motives into productive activities that lead to the accomplishment of educational objectives. Achievements motivation (David McClelland’s) Incentive motivation 17 Task motivation
2. Cognitive Processes and Instruction • Transfer of learning Retrieval of capabilities at the conclusion of the 9 instructional events. Application of skills by introducing new situations. • Learning “How-to-Learn” skills Every individual has ways to manage his or her learning, remembering and thinking. Although not always easy, we should challenge students to work up to their potential. This can improve their how-to- learn skills. 18
2. Cognitive Processes and Instruction • Learners discovers how to combine previously learned rules to generate a solution to a problem that is new to them. • Teaching problem solving requires: Previously acquired necessary rules A problem situation that the learner has not encountered before • The result of problem solving process is the acquisition of higher-order rule. 19
3. The Social Context for Learning Designing Developing Models of Instructional Systems Teaching Provide with sets of A teacher or an materials, learners individual conducts or decides the pace and manages the management of instructions instruction. Things to consider when implementing a context for learning: •Tutoring and extension situation •Small group and large group instructions 20 •Entry capabilities of learners