Do you still remember… A lexeme which is related to otherlexemes is related to them in sense. homonymy synonymy polysemy sense relations antonymy hyponymy
Antonymy1 Types of Antonyms2 Some of the Characteristics of Antonyms3 The Use of Antonyms
Some relevant points about antonyms Word order of antonymous pairs (A) (B) heaven and earth fire and water man and wife heat and cold cause and effect right and left come and go rich and poor far and near heavy and light black and white old and new thick and thin sooner or later
Some relevant points about antonyms Some pairs seem to be antonyms, but actually they are synonyms. loosen --- unloosen valuable --- invaluable flammable --- inflammable shameful --- shameless heritable --- inheritable a good scare --- a bad scare a slim chance --- a fat chance quite a lot --- quite a few
TYPES OF ANTONYMSAntonymyoppositeness of meaning(semantic opposition)Antonymswords which are opposite in meaninge.g. big---small man---woman
TYPES OF ANTONYMSAccording to WNDS, there are 6 classes of antonyms:1) contradictory terms2) contrary terms3) relative terms4) reverse terms5) contrasted terms6) incompatibles
TYPES OF ANTONYMS1. Complementaries2. Contraries3. Converses
TYPES OF ANTONYMS1. Complementaries /contradictory terms---forms of antonyms which truly represent oppositeness of meaninge.g. true---false boy---girl bent---straight correct---incorrect same---different perfect---imperfect
TYPES OF ANTONYMSFeatures of complementaries:a. They are so opposed to each other thatthey are mutually exclusive and admit nopossibility between them.e.g. male---female dead---aliveb. They are nongradable: they cannot beuse in comparative degrees and do notallow adverbs of intensity like very toqualify them.e.g. single---married
TYPES OF ANTONYMS 2. Contraries /gradable antonyms --- best envisaged in terms of a scale running between two poles or extremes....... beautiful, good-looking, average, plain, ugly ...... e.g. white---black heavy---light love---hate old---young begin---end
TYPES OF ANTONYMSFeatures of contraries: Contraries are gradable, and the semantic contrast in a contrary pair is relative; i.e. there are often intermediate terms between the two opposites. e.g. hot---cold*Semantic polarity: they form part of a scale of values between two poles and can accommodate a middle ground belonging neither to one pole nor to the other. ..
TYPES OF ANTONYMS 3. Converses Relational opposites Reverse termshttp://user.qzone.qq.com/379538905 LOGO
TYPES OF ANTONYMS Relational opposites: This pairs of words indicate such a reciprocal social relationship that one of them cannot be used without suggesting the other. e.g. interviewer--interviewee husband--wife boyfriend--girlfriend trainer---trainee perdecessor--successor parent---childhttp://user.qzone.qq.com/379538905 LOGO
TYPES OF ANTONYMSReverse terms: Reverse terms comprise adjectives and adverbs signifying a quality and verbs and nouns signifying an act or state that reverse or undo the quality, action or state of the other.e.g. give---receive buy---sell ask---answer up---down come---go
TYPES OF ANTONYMS*boy--girl vs boyfriend--girlfriend ? ?complementaries relational opposites
SOME OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTONYMS 5. Some words 1. Antonyms can have two are classified 3. Antonyms different types of on the basis TEXT differ in antonyms at the TEXT TEXT semantic TEXT time, one same of semantic being the opposition. inclusion. negative and the other opposite. 4. Contraries are 2. Words which are gradable polysemantic can antonyms,differing in degree of intensity, have more than so each has its own one antonym. corresponding opposite.
SOME OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTONYMS In a language, there are a great Words like write, many more adjectives game, eat, synonyms than > money,magazine, antonyms. verbs hair, bag etc. > nouns
SOME OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTONYMS g viv s tin ac e io int er us dy bo ture bo lec ok me or so somebody weatherintelligent in Dull sunny so pa un ac d u te arp sh
SOME OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTONYMS * Pairs of antonyms are seen as unmarked and marked terms repectively. Unmarked Marked (more specific) man woman nouns chicken cock big smalladjectives heavy light
SOME OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTONYMS e.g. happy---unhappy---sad productive---unproductive---destructive free---unfree---enslaved
THE USE OF ANTONYMS 1 2 3 Enabling us to FormingDefining the express antithesis tomeanings of economically the achieve opposite of a emphasis by a given particular putting word. thought, often for contrasting the sake of ideas together. contrast.
THE USE OF ANTONYMS *Different contexts or collocations also bring about different antonyms.e.g. an old man --- a young man an old house --- a modern/new house a tall building --- a low building a tall man --- a short man fresh bread --- stale bread fresh air --- stuffy air fresh flower --- faded flower fresh look --- tired look
THE USE OF ANTONYMSSome proverbs and sayings areillustrative examples.Many great writers are fond ofusing antonyms to serve theirstylistic purpose.
THE USE OF ANTONYMSe.g. rain or shine now or never thick and thin weal and woe high and low give and take up and down ins and outs