European rightsIulia Cozma, The NationalPedagogic CollegeC. Brătescu Constanţa
Looking for a job abroadAs an EU national, you have the right to work inanother EU country without a work permitSame treatment as localsWhen looking for work abroad, you have the samerights as nationals of the host country regardingaccess to work (except for certain public sector jobs),assistance from employment services and financialsupport to help you find work.Some types of financial support to help you findwork require you to have established a genuine linkwith the local labour market.
Job vacanciesJob vacancies in EuropeYou can find job vacancies in other EU countrieson the European jobs portal EURES (EuropeanEmployment Services): http://ec.europa.eu/euresIn some EU countries, nationals of Romania andBulgaria may temporarily still need a work permit tobecome an employee. All restrictions will be removedby the end of 2013 at the latest.
Getting unemployment benefitabroadIf unemployed, you can get help finding a job in another EUcountry.Looking for work abroadIf you are receiving unemployment benefits, youcan arrange with your employment service to goto another EU country to look for a job and carry onreceiving that benefi t – usually for 3 months with a possibilityto extend up to 6 months. To do this, you haveto apply for authorisation (using a U2 or E 303 form).Generally, you must fi rst have been registered withthe employment services in the country where youbecame unemployed for at least 4 weeks.
Formalities in the host countryTo avoid any interruption in your benefi t payments,you will need to present your authorisation and registerlocally as a jobseeker with the national unemploymentservices within 7 days of leaving the country whereyou became unemployed. If you register any later, yourbenefi ts will be paid only from the day you register.You will then have access to local jobseekerassistance services and will have to comply with theobligations and control procedures of the local employmentservice.
If you don’t find workIf you do not fi nd a job within the 3 months coveredby your authorisation, you can apply for a 3-monthextension. For this, you need to apply before yourauthorisation expires to the national employment servicein the country where you became unemployed, notthe service in the host country.If you want to keep your entitlement to unemploymentbenefit for a longer period, you have to return tothe country where you became unemployed within thetime limit set out in your authorisation.
Getting your professionalqualifications recognisedAs an EU national, you have the right to practise yourprofession in another EU country.Recognition of qualificationsIf your profession is not regulated in the host country,you can practise it there under the same conditionsas nationals of that country, even without an officialcertificate of recognition.If your profession is regulated in the hostcountry,you might need to get your qualifications officiallyrecognised there.If your profession is regulated there but not in yourhome country, you may also have to prove you havepractised in your home country for at least two of thelast 10 years.You can find out which rules apply to your professionand where to find the national contact pointby consulting our database (http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/qualifications/regprof).
Certified copies of documentsThe authorities may ask for certified copies/translations of key documents in your application,such as certificates proving your qualifications.If you want to practise as an architect, dentist,doctor,midwife, nurse, pharmacist or veterinarysurgeon, thehost country may require a certificateof qualification from the responsible authority inyour country stating that you have met theminimum European training requirements for thisprofession.
Paying taxesIf you move to another country and are paying your taxes there, you shouldbe treated the same as nationals of that country.Income taxThe country where you work will normally tax theincome you earn on its territory. If you are living andpaying taxes in a different country, your country ofresidence might also tax the income you earned inthe country where you work.Fortunately, most countries have double taxationagreements that let you offset tax paid in one countryagainst the tax payable in the other.
Tax residenceIf you move to another country and spend morethan 6 months a year there, you might beconsidered a tax resident there. That countrymight then be able to tax your total income from allcountries worldwide. If you spend less than 6months a year in another country, you wouldnormally remain a tax resident in your homecountry (the country where you live). In that case,in your country of work you would be subject to taxonly on income and gains earned.
Accessing social securityWhen moving within the EU, you only pay social securitycontributions in one country at a time, even if you areworking in more than one. Generally, you will also receivesocial security benefits exclusively from this country.Country covering social securityAs a basic rule, you are covered by the legislation ofthe country where you actually work as an employed ora self-employed person and this is where you pay contributions.It does not matter where you live or whereyour employer is based.The country where you work is responsible for yoursocial security coverage even if you commute at leastonce a week from another EU country.If you become unemployed, you should registerwith the employment services and claim unemploymentbenefits in the country where you last worked orin your country of residence if you were commuting.
Short-term assignmentsTo avoid frequent changes in yoursocial securitycoverage, an exception is made forshort assignmentswhen posted by your employer: youremain covered inthe country from which you were sentfor a maximum of 2 years.
Claiming pension rightsIf you have lived and worked in morethan one EU country, you may haveaccumulated pension rights in each. Ifyou meet the national entitlementconditions, each country will pay youa separate pension, proportionate tothe years you worked there.
Being unemployedIf you receive unemploymentbenefits, you are covered by thecountry that pays your benefits.If you don’t receive unemploymentbenefits and are not working, you arecovered by the legislation of thecountry in which you reside.
Claiming pension rightsIf you have lived and worked in more than one EU country,you may have accumulated pension rights in each. If youmeet the national entitlement conditions, each country willpay you a separate pension, proportionate to the years youworked there.Making a claimYou should make a claim to the pension authoritywhere you live. If you have never worked there, contact the authority inthe country where you last worked. They will be your ‘contact institution’and liaise with the authorities in all the other countries where youhave worked to put together your insurance history.Each country will check whether you meet their national requirementsfor an old-age pension. These requirements, such as pensionable ageand amounts paid, differ from one country to another, but EU rulesrequire that each country take into account your contributionhistory in other countries if this is necessary to meet the minimumnumber of years required to get a pension there. Each national authoritywill inform you of the decisions they have made on your pensionentitlements. Finally, your ‘contact institution’ will send you a summaryof the decisions made on your claim by all the countries involved.
Getting healthcare abroadUnder EU law, you can seek medical treatment in another EUcountry and may be entitled to have the costs reimbursed by yournational health insurer.Healthcare during short visitsBefore travelling – whether on holiday, a business trip or for thepurpose of studies – you should get a free European HealthInsurance Card from your statutory health insurer.With your card you can access state-provided healthcare if youunexpectedly fall ill or have an accident during a stay in an EUcountry.If you show your card to a doctor, dentist, hospital or pharmacy,you will receive medically necessary treatment under the sameconditions as locals.Even if you don’t have your card with you, you are entitled tohealthcare. Back home you can ask your health insuranceinstitution for reimbursement.
Planned medical treatmentIf you plan to receive medical treatment abroad and wantyour national health insurer to cover the cost, you may berequired to ask for authorisation before hand.If you seek authorisation fi rst, you will usually not have topay upfront for the treatment. You should check fi nancialconditions with your health insurance institution beforeleaving as diff erent procedures and reimbursement ratesmay apply. Authorisation cannot be refused if the treatmentyou need is covered by the legislation of your home countryand the medical circumstances of your case mean youmight not receive the treatment in time there.When receiving planned healthcare abroad you should betreated on the same terms as a person covered by thehealthcare system of the country of treatment.
Fees and financial helpWhen you go to university in another EUcountry,you are entitled to pay the samecourse fees as nationals of that country.This treatment does not automaticallyextend to maintenance grants and loans.Check with your national authorities if youcan get or keep maintenance grant fromyour country of origin.
Studying abroadAs an EU national, you have the right to study in any EU country under thesame conditions as nationals of that country.Admission to universityAdmission rules vary significantly between countries anduniversities, but regardless of other entry conditions, you may notbe refused access to training or education in another EU countryon grounds of your nationality.Knowledge of the national language may be required, so in somecountries you could be asked to take a language test.Recognition of academic degreesThere is no automatic EU-wide recognition of academic degrees. Ifyou would like to study in another EU country, check beforehand ifyour current degree will be recognised there, and at what level.For matters related to the recognition of your qualificationsfor work purposes, see Chapter 3.