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  1. 1. Human Resource Management Higher Business Management
  2. 2. Today… <ul><li>Role and Importance of HRM </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of HRM </li></ul><ul><li>HRM Remit </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Patterns of Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Sub-contracting </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>The Shamrock Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower Planning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Role and Importance of Human Resource Management (HRM) <ul><li>The most valuable asset in any organisation is its workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the human resources that generate wealth by providing services and producing goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Care must be taken over employees especially if they want to secure and retain staff. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Function of Human Resources <ul><li>HRP </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment and Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of Personnel Records </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance and Discipline </li></ul>
  5. 5. HRM Remit <ul><li>To promote a policy of continuous learning and staff development </li></ul><ul><li>To recruit, develop and retain people with the appropriate skills and attitudes required for present and future jobs </li></ul><ul><li>To manage employee relations </li></ul><ul><li>To design, implement and manage remuneration, reward and appraisal schemes </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain and improve physical and mental well being of the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>To take account of all legislation relevant to HRM </li></ul>
  6. 6. Changing Patterns of Employment <ul><li>Decline in full-time, permanent work </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in heavy engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in service sector employment (call centre, IT) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in women working (suited to new areas of employment) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Changing Patterns of Employment <ul><li>Teleworking </li></ul><ul><li>Flexitime </li></ul><ul><li>Part-time </li></ul><ul><li>Job Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-contracts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reasons for Sub-Contracting <ul><li>More skilled workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Can concentrate on what you’re good at </li></ul><ul><li>Saves money in equipment/training </li></ul>
  9. 9. Human Resource Planning <ul><li>Changing goals of a business </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Market </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Population Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Government Legislation </li></ul>Factors affecting HRP:
  10. 11. Labour Turnover <ul><li>Costs of High Labour Turnover: </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of advertising, interviewing & training new employee </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of production while place is being filled </li></ul><ul><li>Low morale amongst other employees </li></ul>
  11. 12. Manpower Planning <ul><li>If firm’s labour supply > demand: </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Retraining </li></ul><ul><li>Early retirement </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Natural wastage’ </li></ul><ul><li>If firm’s labour supply < demand: </li></ul><ul><li>Additional advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Retraining programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Increase pay & other incentives </li></ul>
  12. 13. Recap… <ul><li>Role and Importance of HRM </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of HRM </li></ul><ul><li>HRM Remit </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Patterns of Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Sub-contracting </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>The Shamrock Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower Planning </li></ul>
  13. 14. Today… <ul><li>Motivation and Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg </li></ul><ul><li>Factors of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul>
  14. 15. Motivation & Needs <ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Needs at top more important than at bottom </li></ul><ul><li>But lower needs have to be satisfied first </li></ul>
  15. 16. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory <ul><li>Frederick Herzberg believed there were two factors that affected people at work: </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene Factors – ones with potential to cause dissatisfaction at work ( salary, working conditions, status, over-supervision ) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivator Factors – aspects of a job that can lead to positive job satisfaction ( achievement; recognition; meaningful, interesting work; psychological growth and learning ) </li></ul>
  16. 18. Factors of Motivation <ul><li>pay levels </li></ul><ul><li>job security </li></ul><ul><li>promotional prospects </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>fringe benefits </li></ul><ul><li>participation in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>working in a team </li></ul>
  17. 19. Motivation <ul><li>Financial Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Flat rate, piece rate, commission. PRP, profit sharing, share ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Financial Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment, delegation, job enrichment, job enlargement, job rotation, quality circles </li></ul>
  18. 20. Empowerment… <ul><li>… providing the means by which subordinates can exercise power over their working lives. </li></ul><ul><li>It offers more responsibility and independence, different from delegation because there is more freedom to decide what to do and how to do it. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Empowerment Benefits to firm <ul><li>Improved productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased staff motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Speedier decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh ideas can improve quality of decisions made </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation may become more competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Faster communication as there are fewer levels in the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Improved management/employee relations </li></ul>
  20. 22. Empowerment benefits to employee <ul><li>May feel valued </li></ul><ul><li>Greater chance of promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Improved pay </li></ul><ul><li>Improved skills </li></ul><ul><li>Employees may be given extra training </li></ul><ul><li>Improved motivatio n </li></ul>
  21. 23. Criticisms of Empowerment <ul><li>Is it more work for less money? </li></ul><ul><li>Not all workers like freedom and responsibility. Some like to be told what to do. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Recap… <ul><li>Motivation and Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg </li></ul><ul><li>Factors of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul>
  23. 25. Today… Recruitment Stages <ul><li>Identify a Job Vacancy </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a Job Description </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a Person Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Advertise the job vacancy Internally or Externally </li></ul>
  24. 26. Identify Job Vacancy <ul><li>Could occur due to: </li></ul><ul><li>An employee leaving organisation </li></ul><ul><li>An employee being promoted </li></ul><ul><li>A new post being created </li></ul>
  25. 27. Conduct Job Analysis <ul><li>This identifies: </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks to be performed </li></ul><ul><li>Skills needed </li></ul><ul><li>Duties & responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Gives idea of ideal candidate </li></ul>
  26. 28. Prepare Job Description <ul><li>This states: </li></ul><ul><li>Job title </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Duties & Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Holiday Entitlements </li></ul>
  27. 29. Prepare Person Specification <ul><li>A description of the type of person suitable for post is drawn up. This includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Personal qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbies & Interests </li></ul>
  28. 30. Advertising Post Internal and External <ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>Notice board </li></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper Adverts </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Job Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Schools/Colleges/ Universities </li></ul>
  29. 31. Internal Recruitment <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Applicant & ability familiar to organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation may have invested in person through training </li></ul><ul><li>Individual aware of culture (no need for induction training) </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Limited skills pool </li></ul><ul><li>Own Job needed to be filled </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment from overlooked staff </li></ul>
  30. 32. External Recruitment <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Can target specific sections of population </li></ul><ul><li>Wider job skills pool </li></ul><ul><li>No need to fill another post </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Time taken can be long </li></ul><ul><li>Successful candidates may turn down job </li></ul>
  31. 33. Recap… Recruitment Stages <ul><li>Identify a Job Vacancy </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a Job Description </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a Person Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Advertise the job vacancy Internally or Externally </li></ul>
  32. 34. Today… Selection Methods <ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Application Forms </li></ul><ul><li>CVs and References </li></ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Centres </li></ul>
  33. 35. Interviews <ul><li>One-to-one interview </li></ul><ul><li>Successive interview </li></ul><ul><li>Panel interview </li></ul>
  34. 36. Application Forms <ul><li>Initial contact, checked against the Person Specification to select suitable candidates for vacancy </li></ul><ul><li>Usually in conjunction with CV </li></ul>
  35. 37. CV <ul><li>Curriculum Vitae or life history </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Details </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Work Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbies/Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Info </li></ul>
  36. 38. Tests <ul><li>Attainment tests </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude tests </li></ul><ul><li>IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric tests </li></ul><ul><li>Medical tests </li></ul>
  37. 39. Assessment Centres <ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Team building </li></ul><ul><li>Role Play </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities looked for: </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills, leadership qualities & personality </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive assessment held over one or two days </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>Selection Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>% used by business </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews 92 </li></ul><ul><li>References 74 </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Centres 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude Tests 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Graphology 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Validity at predicting work performance </li></ul><ul><li>(0 = no use; 1 = very helpful) </li></ul><ul><li>0.17 </li></ul><ul><li>0.13 </li></ul><ul><li>0.40 </li></ul><ul><li>0.54 </li></ul><ul><li>0.00 </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Unstructured interviews typically have poor validity </li></ul><ul><li>Skill of the interviewer is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Structured interviews, based on job analyses, tend to be valid </li></ul><ul><li>May reduce adverse impact if used in conjunction with other tests </li></ul>Employment interviews <ul><li>Use of ability tests can result in high levels of adverse impact </li></ul><ul><li>can be costly to develop & administer </li></ul><ul><li>useful predictors of performance across a wide variety of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Are usually easy and inexpensive to administer </li></ul>Mental Ability tests (IQ) Disadvantages Advantages Assessment
  40. 42. <ul><li>Reports are almost always positive </li></ul><ul><li>used to verify information previously provided by applicants </li></ul><ul><li>May encourage applicants to provide more accurate information </li></ul>Reference checks <ul><li>Can be expensive to develop & administer </li></ul><ul><li>Specialised training required for assessors; </li></ul><ul><li>Good predictors of performance, managerial potential, & leadership ability </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the whole-person approach to personnel assessment </li></ul>Assessment Centres Disadvantages Advantages Assessment
  41. 43. Recap… Selection Methods <ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Application Forms </li></ul><ul><li>CVs and References </li></ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Centres </li></ul>
  42. 44. Today… <ul><li>Reasons for Training and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Training costs and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Induction Training </li></ul><ul><li>Training Methods </li></ul>
  43. 45. Reasons for Training and Development <ul><li>Improve staff performance </li></ul><ul><li>Improve productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Staff more flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Increase job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Staff more motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade staff skills </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce injuries & accidents </li></ul>
  44. 46. Training <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Sending people on training costs </li></ul><ul><li>Paying trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of output </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade skills </li></ul><ul><li>Employee satisfaction </li></ul>
  45. 47. Induction Training <ul><li>For new employees </li></ul><ul><li>Covers aspects of: </li></ul><ul><li>Company procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks of job </li></ul><ul><li>Health & safety </li></ul>
  46. 48. Training Methods <ul><li>On the job – training conducted at employee’s place of work </li></ul><ul><li>Off the job – training occurs outside of work e.g. university or college </li></ul>
  47. 49. Training Methods <ul><li>“ Sitting next to Nellie” – task demonstrated then trainee undertakes task </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching – trainee taken through step by step by trainer </li></ul><ul><li>Job Rotation – trainee learns tasks in different departments/jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Self-paced/distance learning – trainee receives resources and works on their own </li></ul>
  48. 50. Recap… <ul><li>Reasons for Training and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Training costs and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Induction Training </li></ul><ul><li>Training Methods </li></ul>
  49. 51. Today… <ul><li>Staff Development </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping Staff Records </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Records </li></ul>
  50. 52. Staff Development <ul><li>Set targets and have appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate Staff through: </li></ul><ul><li>Bonuses and financial rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Employee of Month </li></ul><ul><li>Team building/social events </li></ul>
  51. 53. Appraisal <ul><li>Assessment of staff performance </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Appraisal form then interview </li></ul><ul><li>Job focus = Looks for success in meeting goals and targets </li></ul><ul><li>Person focus = looks for person’s skills and qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Personality clashes </li></ul>
  52. 54. Reasons for Appraisal <ul><li>To identify future training needs </li></ul><ul><li>Consider individual’s development needs </li></ul><ul><li>Improve employee performance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback on performance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify promotion hopefuls </li></ul>
  53. 55. Keeping Personnel Records <ul><li>Keeps personal info on every employee </li></ul><ul><li>Includes info on appraisals, training etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Conforms to the Data Protection Act </li></ul>
  54. 56. Uses of Records <ul><li>Key Fields: Unique identifiers like National Insurance Number (Glasgow City Council uses this) </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating (Correspondence) </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of staff (promotion, training, teams, specific jobs) </li></ul>
  55. 57. Recap… <ul><li>Staff Development </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping Staff Records </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Records </li></ul>
  56. 58. Today… <ul><li>Employee Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Union Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul>
  57. 59. Employee Relations <ul><li>“ The formal relationship between employees and employers” </li></ul>
  58. 60. Trade Unions <ul><li>Organisation representing workers re: pay negotiations, working conditions, dismissal, redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Collective bargaining is the basis of unions, whereby a group of workers stand a better chance to negotiate </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions are funded by annual subscriptions by its members </li></ul>
  59. 61. Trade Union Aims <ul><li>To improve pay of its members </li></ul><ul><li>Improve working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Support training & development of members </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure members’ interests are considered by employers </li></ul>
  60. 62. Collective Bargaining <ul><li>Begins with a change in existing contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Employers make offer to employee reps </li></ul><ul><li>Reps tell members & counter-claim occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations begin </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually a compromise is usually reached </li></ul>
  61. 63. Grievance <ul><li>Grievance is a complaint by employee against employer </li></ul><ul><li>Can be taken up by: </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial tribunal </li></ul><ul><li>ACAS </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Union </li></ul>
  62. 64. Discipline <ul><li>Discipline procedures are taken against employee by employers </li></ul><ul><li>Employees must be aware of rules </li></ul><ul><li>verbal & written warnings given for breaking rules </li></ul><ul><li>Suspensions can follow then dismissal </li></ul>
  63. 65. Recap… <ul><li>Employee Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Union Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul>
  64. 66. Today… <ul><li>ACAS </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>Works Councils </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Action </li></ul>
  65. 67. ACAS – Advisory, Conciliation & Arbitration Service <ul><li>Provides impartial information to people with problems at work </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents & resolves problems at work </li></ul><ul><li>Settles complaints about employee’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Run workshops & seminars on latest employment issues & legislation </li></ul>
  66. 68. Processes <ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitration </li></ul>
  67. 69. Negotiation <ul><li>Its purpose is to reach an agreement, but needs some middle ground between the two positions held. </li></ul><ul><li>Success of the firm should benefit both employee as employers, so it is in their best interests to come to a settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Employers and employees discuss matters that are important to both of them in order to come to an agreement. It also involves compromise. </li></ul>
  68. 70. Consultation <ul><li>Informing employees of new rules and regulations that are being brought in is consultation. </li></ul><ul><li>The changes may have been forced upon the firm by the Government, therefore no agreement is necessary and employees views are not needed to be taken into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Final decision lies with the organisation. </li></ul>
  69. 71. Arbitration <ul><li>When no agreement occurs, then a third party, an independent arbitrator such as ACAS is called in. </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrators are neutral and unbiased and will listen to both sides and offer a fair and practical solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Binding arbitration is when both sides agree to go with the decision of the third party. </li></ul>
  70. 72. Works’ Councils <ul><li>They are set up by an organisation and contains the same amount of employees and employer representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Groups meet to discuss any proposed changes before they are implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions reached by the council are usually accepted by the workforce as their representatives have been involved. </li></ul>
  71. 73. Industrial Action <ul><li>Employee Action </li></ul><ul><li>Sit in </li></ul><ul><li>Overtime ban </li></ul><ul><li>Work to rule </li></ul><ul><li>Go slow </li></ul><ul><li>Strike </li></ul><ul><li>Employer Action </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Lock out </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>
  72. 74. Recap… <ul><li>ACAS </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>Works Councils </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Action </li></ul>
  73. 75. Today… Legislation <ul><li>Sex Discrimination Act 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Race Relations Act 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Rights Act 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Pay Act 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Office, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 </li></ul>
  74. 76. Sex Discrimination Act (1975) <ul><li>Illegal to discriminate against employee or job applicant on grounds of gender or marital status </li></ul>
  75. 77. Race Relations Act (1976) <ul><li>Illegal for employers to discriminate against employee or job applicant on grounds of ethnic background </li></ul>
  76. 78. Employment Rights Act (1996) <ul><li>Covers: </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair dismissal </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Maternity leave </li></ul>
  77. 79. Equal Pay Act (1970) <ul><li>Pay conditions must be equal for employees of the opposite sex who are performing same work </li></ul>
  78. 80. Health & Safety at Work Act (1974) <ul><li>Covers: </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of safety equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace hygiene </li></ul>
  79. 81. Office, Shops and Railway Act <ul><li>Covers: </li></ul><ul><li>Operating dangerous machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Seating & Storage space </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature/ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Premises, Toilets etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Not all workers like freedom and responsibility. Some like to be told what to do. </li></ul>
  80. 82. What are the main objectives of HRM?
  81. 83. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and describe how they are satisfied through employment
  82. 84. Describe 3 strategies that could be employed to increase employee motivation
  83. 85. Describe how the structure of the workforce has changed in recent years
  84. 86. Describe the growing importance of women at work, and identify the issues that HRM are having to face
  85. 87. What problems have been presented to firms who have reduced their core workforce?
  86. 88. Describe the importance of good Human Resource Planning
  87. 89. Describe the 5 main roles that the HRM department plays within the organisation
  88. 90. Identify the first 3 stages in the recruitment process
  89. 91. Describe the advantages and disadvantages for both internal and external recruitment
  90. 92. Explain what procedures are involved in the selection process
  91. 93. Identify and describe the different methods of training available to the organisation
  92. 94. Describe the benefits of a staff development policy
  93. 95. Identify the main institutions involved in employee relations
  94. 96. Describe the stages in the employee relations process
  95. 97. Identify two methods for the successful management of employee relations
  96. 98. What should a contract of employment include?
  97. 99. What information should be contained in personnel records?
  98. 100. Identify the major pieces of legislation of concern to HRM departments