Brief History of English Spelling• American English Influences (1700s - Present) – American Spelling Book (Noah Webster) • Reformed certain spellings, especially suffixes (e. g., our to or): – our - From favour To favor – re - From centre To center – ce - From defence To defense – ise - From recognise To recognize
Talk to Yourself Spelling Chart ExampleThe word is ___struggle__ I hear the consonant sounds _/strgl/___I see ____8_ lettersThe spelling pattern is ___”str”__The vowel says /ʌ / and /ə/Another word with the same spelling pattern as __struggle___ is __strange___
Consonant Cluster• What is a consonant cluster? : two or more consonants in sequence (e.g., st-/-st, tr-, str-, spl-) e.g., past, trick, stress, splash• It may occur at the beginning of a word (stop), at the end of a word (past), or within a word (pastry).• Students whose L1 doesn‟t have a CVC pattern may add a vowel at the end to facilitate pronunciation, which leads to spelling errors (e.g., test testo)
Mini Lesson on Consonant Clusters• Not all languages have consonant clusters.• Consider the syllabic structure of other languages (e.g., Japanese – predominantly CV).• In a small group, create a mini lesson to teach CC (e.g., tr- as in “trick”) and CCC (e.g., str- a in “street”) patterns that is engaging.• Demonstrate your lesson!
Different Orthographies• For students whose first language writing system is alphabetic and who have learned to read in that language, moving to English orthography (spelling conventions) may not be a huge leap. However, for those who have learned to read in a syllabic writing system (like that of Japanese, where a syllable like ka or mi is represented by a single graphic element) the leap is greater.
Did you know …?• If you know a little Spanish and have good pronunciation, you can read a page of a newspaper aloud to a native Spaniard without knowing what it means, and s/he will still understand you. This is impossible in Japanese.• Japanese is one of the few languages in . the world which cannot be read aloud without understanding the text you are reading.
3 Character Types• Japanese use a combination of 3 writing systems (Hiragana, Katakana & Kanji) Ex.その猫はトムと呼びます。(The cat is called “Tom”).• Kanji are for content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)• Hiragana are for function words/grammatical markers (verb endings, particles)• Katakana are for foreign words or onomotopeia
Semantic Radicals• The basic kanji parts are called “radicals”, which combine with other kanji to create more complex characters.• To some extent, it is possible to guess their meanings from the combination of parts. Ex. 猫 (radical = animal/beast)
Different Orthographies• Even when a student‟s first language is written in alphabetic system, we cannot expect students to make the transition to English reading without considerable explicit instruction (Escamilla, 1999).
Orthography Activity• Using the table provided, let‟s explore components (4 - 5) of orthography in the language selected from the list by the team as compared to English.* When the table is complete, summarize 2 – 3 ways that your team will use this information in your future professional practice with CLD students.* Add Chinese (Cantonese) to the list.
Language Exploration ExampleLanguage that the team explored: EnglishFrench1) 26 letters (not including 5 accents and 1) 26 letters represent 40-52 phonemes 2 ligatures) represent approx. 40 phonemes.2) 7 vowel letters (with 5 diacritical 2) 5 vowel letters and 15 vowel marks) and 17 vowel sounds sounds3) Pronunciation is mostly based on spelling, but the sounds from those 3) Sometimes the pronunciation varies spellings are often different than with the same spelling (read) English4) Letters may not be pronounced at the 4) Some letters do not have direct relation end of words, depending on the to the sounds in the word (height) beginning of the next word, but they often play an important role in determining number or gender (e and s).5) Numerous phonemes can be spelled in 5) 19 consonant phonemes are spelled more than one way (s and c, for using more than one letter (enough) example). Because so many letters can be silent, there are many opportunities for homonyms.
Teaching Applications• 1. Build background knowledge of a CLD student‟s L1: L2 errors can inform the teacher on L1 transfers. 2. It might be helpful to ask French speaking students to think about silent letters in their L1 when learning words such as “know” and “knife”. 3. French “q”s are pronounced as English “k” s, so it might be helpful to give special influence to q words with French CLD students.
Orthographic Linguistic Investigations• Use the IPA to give examples of the orthographic rule that you‟re investigating (i.e., /eɪ/ can be spelled “aCe”, “ai”, “ea”, “a”, and “ay” (Freeman & Freeman, p. 113)• See if you can find a pattern/explanation for the spelling rule that you‟re looking into (i.e. use the dictionary to find out the etymology of the word – online etymology dictionary) http://www.etymonline.com
Why do we need to learn about orthography?• Knowing phonological and spelling patterns of other languages allows us to understand why ELL students make orthographic errors the way they do in English. We can approach our instruction to meet the specific linguistic needs in the area of orthography. For example, we can predict possible phonological transfer from L1 to L2 (e.g., replace “th” with “d”, “j” with “h”, etc.) resulting in spelling errors.