Su 2012 ss orthography(1)


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  • Su 2012 ss orthography(1)

    1. 1. Chapter Five: English Orthography Summer, 2012
    2. 2. Orthography• General Definition: – All aspects of writing, including: • spelling, punctuation, spacing, fo nts, etc.• Specific Definition: – The way that letters are used to spell words CIMA © 2008
    3. 3. Brief History of Writing Systems• Greek Contributions: – First true alphabet. 1500 BC • Each sound of the language was represented by a letter.• Roman/Latin Contributions: – Romans added the letters v, x, and y to the Greek alphabet. • Roman/Latin alphabet is now the most widely used in the world. CIMA © 2008
    4. 4. The Early Greek Alphabet to the Roman Alphabet
    5. 5. Alphabet Systems: Pros & Cons• Pros: – Uses letters to represent sounds and words that, in turn, represents ideas. – Only a small number of letters are needed to generate a very large repertoire of words.• Cons: – Regularity of spelling varies by language (Sp. = consistent b/t letter + sound, Eng = more complicated) – Not always 1:1 letter-sound correspondence in Eng (e.g. “th” - /θ/ or /ð/) CIMA © 2008
    6. 6. Etymology• Greek origin meaning “study of the true sense of words or discourse;” the history of words and their meanings• Important concept when discussing literacy because English has been influenced by many languages, hence, the development of our non-fonetik spelling sistim. CIMA © 2008
    7. 7. Brief History of English Spelling• Old English Influences (450 - 1100 A.D.) – Did not use the letters j, k, v, w, (q, z rarely) • Used replaced letters to denote certain sounds: – e.g., a kind of z (cursive), called the yogh (written as 3, Arabic number) – Alterations in word endings for some plurals originate in Old English • e.g., thief and thieves CIMA © 2008
    8. 8. Brief History of English Spelling• Middle English Influences (1066 - 1500 A.D.): – Associated with the Norman Conquest • Words from French and Latin added – Replaced Old English ‘cw’ with „qu’ • e.g., cwen became queen – Replaced h with gh • i.e., origin of words tough and cough CIMA © 2008
    9. 9. Brief History of English Spelling• Modern English Influences (1500 A.D. - present) – Approximately 1500-1755 A.D., many Anglo- Saxon spellings were replaced by supposed “Greek & Latin” roots – e.g., “dette” became “debt” and “doute” became “doubt” CIMA © 2008
    10. 10. Brief History of English Spelling• American English Influences (1700s - Present) – American Spelling Book (Noah Webster) • Reformed certain spellings, especially suffixes (e. g., our to or): – our - From favour To favor – re - From centre To center – ce - From defence To defense – ise - From recognise To recognize
    11. 11. RECAP: Annotated History of English Spelling• Old English • Modern English – Alterations in word – Anglo-Saxon spellings replaced with Greek & endings for English Latin (e.g., debt & plurals (E. doubt) g., thieves) • American English• Middle English – Noah Webster – Replaced: – Reformed many spellings, especially • „cw‟ with „qu‟ suffixes • „g‟ with „gh‟ (E. g., -our to -or) CIMA © 2008
    12. 12. Spelling Strategies– The more ideas you can give students for practicing spelling words, the better!– Here are a few ideas: • Personal dictionary • Think alouds CIMA © 2008
    13. 13. Personal Dictionary Word In my Meaning Picture languageChanticlee Gallo Heroicr roosterSh notCh CIMA © 2008
    14. 14. Talk to Yourself Spelling ChartThe word is _____I hear the consonant sounds ____I see _____ lettersThe spelling pattern is _____The vowel says _____Another word with the same spelling pattern as _____ is _____ CIMA © 2008
    15. 15. Talk to Yourself Spelling Chart ExampleThe word is ___struggle__ I hear the consonant sounds _/strgl/___I see ____8_ lettersThe spelling pattern is ___”str”__The vowel says /ʌ / and /ə/Another word with the same spelling pattern as __struggle___ is __strange___
    16. 16. Consonant Cluster• What is a consonant cluster? : two or more consonants in sequence (e.g., st-/-st, tr-, str-, spl-) e.g., past, trick, stress, splash• It may occur at the beginning of a word (stop), at the end of a word (past), or within a word (pastry).• Students whose L1 doesn‟t have a CVC pattern may add a vowel at the end to facilitate pronunciation, which leads to spelling errors (e.g., test  testo)
    17. 17. Mini Lesson on Consonant Clusters• Not all languages have consonant clusters.• Consider the syllabic structure of other languages (e.g., Japanese – predominantly CV).• In a small group, create a mini lesson to teach CC (e.g., tr- as in “trick”) and CCC (e.g., str- a in “street”) patterns that is engaging.• Demonstrate your lesson!
    18. 18. What is working for you?• Word walls (words, pictures, realia, L1 words)• “Magnetic Poems” (Post-its with vocabulary)• Human words (Ss wear/hold letters to make words)• Rules that work with most words (e.g., “I” before “E” except after “C”)• Interactive Word Blender Game - nder/game.shtml CIMA © 2008
    19. 19. Word Walls - more than just displaying words
    20. 20. Word Walls of Synonyms
    21. 21. Symbolic Representation
    22. 22. Different Orthographies• For students whose first language writing system is alphabetic and who have learned to read in that language, moving to English orthography (spelling conventions) may not be a huge leap. However, for those who have learned to read in a syllabic writing system (like that of Japanese, where a syllable like ka or mi is represented by a single graphic element) the leap is greater.
    23. 23. Japanese Orthography
    24. 24. Did you know …?• If you know a little Spanish and have good pronunciation, you can read a page of a newspaper aloud to a native Spaniard without knowing what it means, and s/he will still understand you. This is impossible in Japanese.• Japanese is one of the few languages in . the world which cannot be read aloud without understanding the text you are reading.
    25. 25. 3 Character Types• Japanese use a combination of 3 writing systems (Hiragana, Katakana & Kanji) Ex.その猫はトムと呼びます。(The cat is called “Tom”).• Kanji are for content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)• Hiragana are for function words/grammatical markers (verb endings, particles)• Katakana are for foreign words or onomotopeia
    26. 26. Semantic Radicals• The basic kanji parts are called “radicals”, which combine with other kanji to create more complex characters.• To some extent, it is possible to guess their meanings from the combination of parts. Ex. 猫 (radical = animal/beast)
    27. 27. Different Orthographies• Even when a student‟s first language is written in alphabetic system, we cannot expect students to make the transition to English reading without considerable explicit instruction (Escamilla, 1999).
    28. 28. Different Orthographies• Vowels and the Problems They Can Cause – Roman alphabet still may need explicit instruction. • English: 5 letters represent 11 vowel sounds, individually or in combination. – The letter a alone represents at least four sounds: /ɑ/, /æ/, /ə/, /eɪ/, etc. CIMA © 2008
    29. 29. Sounds That Do Transfer• Focus on what they bring with them in their language system• Four of the ten most commonly spoken languages (other than English) use the Roman alphabet system – Spanish – Vietnamese – Hmong – Haitian Creole CIMA © 2008
    30. 30. Orthography Activity• Using the table provided, let‟s explore components (4 - 5) of orthography in the language selected from the list by the team as compared to English.* When the table is complete, summarize 2 – 3 ways that your team will use this information in your future professional practice with CLD students.* Add Chinese (Cantonese) to the list.
    31. 31. Language Exploration ExampleLanguage that the team explored: EnglishFrench1) 26 letters (not including 5 accents and 1) 26 letters represent 40-52 phonemes 2 ligatures) represent approx. 40 phonemes.2) 7 vowel letters (with 5 diacritical 2) 5 vowel letters and 15 vowel marks) and 17 vowel sounds sounds3) Pronunciation is mostly based on spelling, but the sounds from those 3) Sometimes the pronunciation varies spellings are often different than with the same spelling (read) English4) Letters may not be pronounced at the 4) Some letters do not have direct relation end of words, depending on the to the sounds in the word (height) beginning of the next word, but they often play an important role in determining number or gender (e and s).5) Numerous phonemes can be spelled in 5) 19 consonant phonemes are spelled more than one way (s and c, for using more than one letter (enough) example). Because so many letters can be silent, there are many opportunities for homonyms.
    32. 32. Teaching Applications• 1. Build background knowledge of a CLD student‟s L1: L2 errors can inform the teacher on L1 transfers. 2. It might be helpful to ask French speaking students to think about silent letters in their L1 when learning words such as “know” and “knife”. 3. French “q”s are pronounced as English “k” s, so it might be helpful to give special influence to q words with French CLD students.
    33. 33. Spelling and CLD Students• Remember that CLD students may find spelling one of the most difficult tasks to master in English. – Problems with phonemes (Consonants different in different environment) – Rules and exceptions• Focus on multiple encounters with comprehensible written language to increase spelling skills. CIMA © 2008
    34. 34. Orthographic Linguistic Investigations• In small groups (or independently) use an article that is provided to you – You might have to refer to more than one article, depending on the spelling feature you choose to investigate• Select a spelling feature to investigate – i.e., a single letter/sound correspondence or a combination of letters and their sound correspondences (e.g., frequency – L. frequentia "a crowding”) CIMA © 2008
    35. 35. Orthographic Linguistic Investigations• Use the IPA to give examples of the orthographic rule that you‟re investigating (i.e., /eɪ/ can be spelled “aCe”, “ai”, “ea”, “a”, and “ay” (Freeman & Freeman, p. 113)• See if you can find a pattern/explanation for the spelling rule that you‟re looking into (i.e. use the dictionary to find out the etymology of the word – online etymology dictionary)
    36. 36. Why do we need to learn about orthography?• Knowing phonological and spelling patterns of other languages allows us to understand why ELL students make orthographic errors the way they do in English. We can approach our instruction to meet the specific linguistic needs in the area of orthography. For example, we can predict possible phonological transfer from L1 to L2 (e.g., replace “th” with “d”, “j” with “h”, etc.) resulting in spelling errors.