Student mh 2


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  • BICS : B asic I nterpersonal C ommunication S kills Understanding from context Acquisition of syntax, grammar, basic vocabulary, etc… Takes 2-3 years to acquire CALP : C ognitive A cademic L anguage P roficiency Decontexualized understanding Ability to use second language as a tool for learning Takes 5-7 years or more to acquire
  • Additional Points: Urban/suburban/rural Upper class, Middle class, Low SES Cultural Identity/Solidarity Religiosity Ways to learn about Experiential Knowledge: Home Visit Oral History Allow for Use of L1 Reflect Culture & Language of Student in the Classroom Environment
  • Acknowledge and build upon the diverse cultural backgrounds of your CLD students & families. Create positive home-school relationships to learn about CLD students families. Invite parents to share their “funds of knowledge.”
  • .
  • Incorporate literature from students native countries. Explicitly teach higher-order questioning skills. Tap into oral traditions of family/home. Utilize technology.
  • Explains how second language acquisition takes place. Only concerned with acquisition not learning. The learner improves and progresses along the natural order when he/she receives input in the second language. “ i+1” input is appropriate for ELLs current stage of linguistic competence.
  • How to Change the states of mind as we go along with the assessments?
  • Different types of interaction Teacher- Student Student-Student In Groups In Pairs Add the big chart as talking point.
  • Student mh 2

    1. 1. Implications forTeaching & Learning 
    2. 2. Our Mission (the what)…• Explore the dynamics of second language acquisition and implications for instructional practice.We will do this by (the how)…• Making practical connections to classroom practice.• Initiating and documenting critical conversations about theory into practice.
    3. 3. Language Acquisition What is Language Acquisition? How did you experience L2 language acquisition? What processes occurs during language acquisition?
    4. 4. Language as an Language as a Associative Function Cognitive FunctionBICS: Basic Interpersonal CALP: Cognitive AcademicCommunication Skills Language Proficiency I would like to have a I’ll pick up some CPVC, bathroom added in our 90 degree elbows, some 45 basement. I want it to degree elbows, three inch have a nice size whirlpool black PVC, three P-traps, tub, a large shower, toilet, four shut off valves, and a double sink. What a wax ring, and extra will I need? couplings. Cummins & - Koch
    5. 5. Time Required to Achieve Age-Appropriate Proficiency Native English Speakers: English Language Learners: 5-7 (up to 10) years 2-3 yearsci f or p f ol e ve L f or p f ol e ve L BICS: Social CALP: Academic Language Language - Thomas & Collier
    6. 6. Linking Language to Content:Promoting Transfer & Contextualizing Schema Known to Unknown N a S t e Contextual i c o v o n e n n d e c t Language i n Language g Conceptual - Herrera
    7. 7. Vocabulary Quilt in Practice: From Known to Unknown• Promotes use of native language (L1).• Assesses prior knowledge (academic/experiential).• Allows for non-linguistic representations.• Introduces new vocabulary/content.• Ensures student accountability for learning.Note: This strategy can be used throughout the lesson.
    8. 8. In the Know “A horse is a horse, of course, unless you don’t know what a horse is, and then what?!”Experiential AcademicKnowledge Knowledge
    9. 9. To take our students from the known to the unknown,we must first determine what it is they know!
    10. 10. Experiential Knowledge"Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they are going." • Country of Origin • Family Dynamics • Community -Brown
    11. 11. Funds of Knowledge as a Resource Funds of knowledge are those historically developed and accumulated strategies orbodies of knowledge that are essential to the function and well-being of a household. - Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez
    12. 12. Hearts ActivityStudents come with experiences that are uniquely their own!
    13. 13. Academic Knowledge• Prior Exposure to Content/Concepts• Prior Schooling Experiences• Social/Affective Experiences
    14. 14. Additional Types of KnowledgeDeclarative Procedural Conditional MetacognitiveKnowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge• What we know. • Used to • Knowing when, • Consists of• What we complete simple why, or where to “higher-orderdeclare. or complex tasks. use information. thinking that•Schemata • This knowledge • Stored in long- involves active(memory stored in term memory. control over theframeworks) production • Extremely cognitivestores declarative systems. difficult processesknowledge. • Systems consists knowledge for engaged in of steps or teachers and learning”. phases. students. •Conceptualized as acquired knowledge
    15. 15. What the Research Says About Vocabulary Students develop vocabulary through explicit vocabulary instruction. For English language learners, the “achievement gap” is primarily a vocabulary gap. - Carlo et al.
    16. 16. CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) 5 to 7 years for fluencyAcademic Knowledge Math1. Can recognize math numbersand symbols.2. Can draw andlabel diagrams .3. Can systematically order word problems.4. Can identify parts of a graph.5. Can circle unknown vocabulary terms to ask questions about them.6. Can translate word problems using “ math terms.” - Dicus
    17. 17. CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) 5 to 7 years for fluencyAcademic Knowledge English1. Usesmechanics of spatial skills (i.e., top-to-bottom, left-to-right).2. Understandsrules of punctuation/capitalization.3. Readsfor comprehension.4. Follows along during oral reading activity and resp onds at his/her turn.5. Demonstrates appropriate useof text (i.e., index, bold words, captions). - Calder
    18. 18. Daily Activity Play a jeopardy game:Experiential Conditional Declarative WorkingKnowledge Knowledge Knowledge MemoryAutomatization Academic Metacognitive Knowledge ? KnowledgeFunds of Sensory Procedural ?Knowledge Memory Knowledge
    19. 19. Linking Language to Content: Benefits for CLD Students• L1 responses• Non-linguistic responses• Single-word responses in L2• Demonstrates existing schema• Provides contextual connections• Starting point for discussion and elaboration
    20. 20. How do we best supportsecond language acquisition (SLA)?• Contextualize for stages of SLA• Promote native language transfer• Differentiate instruction• Capitalize on the CLD student biography
    21. 21. Krashen’s Stages ofSecond Language Acquisition (SLA) • Preproduction • Early Production • Speech Emergence • Intermediate Fluency • Advanced Fluency Herrera & Murry
    22. 22. Student Configurations forSecond Language Development OTAL CLASS ARTNERS MALL TEAMS NDIVIDUAL Herrera, Perez, & Escamilla
    23. 23. Student Configuration Comparisons Activity In USA:  In Ecuador:  Total  With a partner,  Partner discuss the various  Small Group combinations of student configurations  Individual used in your classrooms.  Share out loud some examples and its successes!
    24. 24. Small Team: Setting up Student ConfigurationsStep 1: Complete CLD student biographies.Step 2: Determine academic purpose for grouping.Step 3: Determine task & outcome to be completed by team.Step 4: Designate teams to reflect CLD student biographies.Step 5: Authentically assess work completed by the team. - Perez
    25. 25. End of Day: Daily Review Partner activities: Partner Bio Card  Refer to your student activity handbook.  Create a student biography of a partner.  Share out loud with the whole group if time permits.
    26. 26. Introduction Activity Magic Book Activity:  Retrieve two different colors of construction paper, scissors, pens/pencils or markersSLA BICS CALP Natural Order Affective Hypothesis Filter HypothesisInput Acquisition Monitor Pre-production EarlyHypothesis Learning Hypothesis Production HypothesisSpeech Intermediate Advanced Differentiated PriorEmergence Fluency Fluency Instruction Knowledge
    27. 27. Day 2: Today we will Discuss Krashen’s Five Hypothesis Consider various examples using the five hypothesis
    28. 28. Krashen’s Natural Order Hypothesis The acquisition of grammatical structures follows a natural order that is predictable. It is independent of the learner’s age. It is independent of the learner’s L1 background. Krashen
    29. 29. The Learning/Acquisition Hypothesis “Learning is a conscious process that involves studying rules and vocabulary” (Krashen) There are 2 ways in learning and developing a second language:  Learning (conscious process)  Acquisition (subconscious process) Learning Acquisition Conscious: we are aware we Subconscious: we are not are learning. aware we are learning. It’s what happens in school It’s what happens in and out when we study rules and of school when we receive grammar. messages we understand.
    30. 30. The Monitor Hypothesis It assists the role of learning in the process of language acquisition. Native English speakers possess the ability to distinguish between phonology, syntax, morphology and grammar usage in speaking. Understanding and comprehension in this hypothesis also plays a role in language competence. Monitoring language focuses on how something is said instead of what is said.
    31. 31. Input Hypothesis Acquisition occurs with comprehensible input. Receiving input does not guarantee language acquisition. Krashen refers to input as i+1. If students receive input at or below their current level, no new acquisition will be learned. Some researchers has noted the importance of “comprehensible output” which results in meaningful language usage.
    32. 32. Individual: Krashen’s Input Hypothesis (i + 1) Comprehensible input (i+1).  i = current level of comprehension.  i + 1 = a slightly elevated level of discourse input. - Krashen
    33. 33. The Affective Filter Hypothesis How do you feel in class? Are you nervous, bored, anxious…? In order to learn language, you need comprehensible input and Chomsky refers to it as the language acquisition device. If input is blocked by a filter very little language acquisition occurs. If the filter open, language acquisition occurs.
    34. 34. Theories of SLA: “Role Play” Me a Hypothesis Activity:1. Learning/Acquisition Hypothesis • Divide into teams of 3-4. • Review your assigned theory.2. The Natural Order Hypothesis • Find a way to role-play the main points and concepts3. The Monitor of your theory (all team Hypothesis members must participate).4. The Input Hypothesis • Act out for the class and debrief the key characteristics5. The Affective Filter of your hypothesis. Hypothesis
    35. 35. Partners: Turn and Talk• Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development• Active engagement of all students• Lowers affective filter• Exchange of grade-level content knowledge• Personal connections with the content
    36. 36. End of Day: Daily Review Picture Me A Hypothesis:  Break into 5 small groups  Each group should receive huge chart paper with markers  Choose a hypothesis: Natural Order hypothesis, Input hypothesis, affective filter hypothesis etc.  Draw a picture with the hypothesis and give a description of each.
    37. 37. Welcome to Law!! Today we will:  Discuss quality programming by considering the law  Activity: Create a Law Book.
    38. 38. It’s the Law….Ecuador•Follow the directions given by the instructor to create your own“Book.”• Write the following title and your name on the front of your book: “Education in Ecuador”• On the top of each pages, write the following: - Private school - Public school - Educational Initiatives
    39. 39. Completing your Law Book•Individually write down key facts about each law in your own law book by taking “Power Notes.”• Power Notes are a streamlined form of notetaking: • Main ideas are assigned 1. Reformers 2. Populists a power rating of 1. 3. National Grange 3. Farmer’s Alliance • Attributes, details, or 3. Populist Party 2. Unions examples are assigned 3. The Knights of Labor 3. IWW power 2, 3, or 4 ratings.
    40. 40. Day 5:AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT Today we will: Examine the role of authentic assessment with CLD students. Explore the scope of interaction as an integral part of authentic assessment. Learn about authentic assessment as a tool for informing instruction. Learn strategies for taking theory into practice.
    41. 41. Language ObjectivesWe will accomplish this by: Defining key aspects of authentic assessment. Listening to the descriptions of authentic assessment strategies. Thinking about the role of interaction in authentic assessment.
    42. 42. Authentic Assessment: Socio-Affective ConsiderationsMath anxiety: Feelings of dread and fear…may actually contribute to lower test scores. Steenhuysen
    43. 43. Key Vocabulary• Authentic Assessment• Prism Model• States of Mind• Interaction• Performance-Based Assessment• Portfolios
    44. 44. UncoverConcentrateMonitorEvaluate What are states of mind? Authentic In what ways do we use interaction as an Assessment authentic assessment tool? What is performance- based assessment?
    45. 45. A Closer Look: What is Authentic Assessment? Teacher-generated, instruction-based, grade-level assessments that inform practice. Assessment that emphasizes process not product. Assessment that builds upon assets of the CLD students’ biographies. Assessment that supports student learning through the use of interactive grouping configurations.
    46. 46. A Traditional Definition of Authentic AssessmentAuthentic assessments:∀ Are generally developed directly from classroom instruction, group work, and/or related classroom activities and provide an alternative to traditional assessments.∀ Facilitate the student’s participation in evaluation processes.∀ Include measurements and/or evaluations relevant to both the teacher and student.∀ Emphasize real-world problems, tasks, or applicationsthat are relevant to the student and/or his or- her community. Herrera, Murry & Cabral
    47. 47. Changing States of Mind • Fear • Connection • Anxiety • Excitement • Frustration • Curiosity • Confusion • CelebrationBehavior = State of Mind = Affective Filter - Jensen
    48. 48. Authentic Assessment in PracticeQuestions to consider:• What purpose does the authentic assessment serve?• How will the information be used to inform instruction and improve learning?• Where does it fit in the lesson (before, during, and after)?
    49. 49. Interaction & Assessment Teacher to Student Student to Student to Teacher Student Groups• Student interaction promotes language & concept development.• Interactive grouping configurations should be TPSI. *T = Total Group *P = Partner *S = Small Group *I = Individual
    50. 50. Performance-Based Assessment Students are engaged in a task to demonstrate knowledge. Assessment is based on the belief that students construct knowledge. Students discover knowledge vs. receiving knowledge from the teacher. Assessment prompts higher-order thinking. Assessment integrates multiple skills.
    51. 51. Sample Performance-Based Assessment in Practice• U-C-ME: Cooperative Group Assessment• PICTURES AND WORDS: Peer Assessment• THUMB CHALLENGE: Play Based Assessment
    52. 52. How will the teacher know what I knowif she doesn’t take timeto know what I know? Anonymous
    53. 53. UncoverConcentrateMonitorEvaluate What are states of mind? Authentic In what ways do we use interaction as an Assessment authentic assessment tool? What is performance- based assessment?
    54. 54. End of Day: Daily Review U-C-ME Activity:  Work individually.  Turn to partner after individual work.  Discuss with whole class to gather all different perspectives and understanding.
    55. 55. Review Day Today we will:  Review all the vocabulary for understanding and practice  Activity: LIFELINE  Review SLA  Activity: Pepsi Ah!  Review all learning  Activity: Tri-Fold
    56. 56. Activity 1: Lifeline Refer to you activity handbook. Work with a partner After partner collaboration, transition to small group to expand horizons.
    57. 57. Activity 2: PEPSI AH! Create 5 groups of students. Create 5 huge circles which resembles a stop light. Paste these 5 circles below each other. Fill in the stages of second language acquisition. Write key points in front with application on back.
    58. 58. Activity 3: Tri-fold Complete the tri-fold on your learning for the past week. Share in small groups. Q & A to address any concerns.