Female Authority and Narrative Voice ** Prof. **
Contents Introduction 1 Outline 2 Researching Findings 3 Further Study 4
Introduction-Susan Lanser’s Theory Authorial Voice Personal Voice Communal Voice Fiction of Authority establish & maintain authority in a number of ways “ a quest to be heard, respected, and believed, a hope of influence” (Lanser, 1992, p.7)
Introduction-Tillie Olsen Tillie Olsen (1912-2007) American Jewish Writer Yonnondiio: From the Thirties I Stand Here Ironing Hey Sailor, What Ship? O, Yes Tell me a Riddle Silences Initially 1960s- 1970s Present form and technique feminist thoughts three divisions feminist thoughts social struggle roots adoption into a Jewish-American literary canon
Unnamed mother Black mother Alva Russia Jewish Woman Eva I Stand Here Ironing O, Yes Tell Me A Riddle
Researching Findings Authorial Voice Personal Voice Communal Voice Resisting Masculine Narrative Authority Fastening Authority of Maternal Narration Establishing Narrative Authority of Marginalized Group
Authorial Voice “ The authorial voice may have the risk of being disqualified if it has represented itself as female . It is possible that women’s writing has carried fuller public authority when its voice has not been marked as female ” (Lanser, 1992, p.18). “ narrative situations that are heterodiegetic, public, and potentially self-referential” (Lanser, 1992, p. 9).
Frye concludes that it is through the use of the first person that women writers achieve the dual outcomes of femininity and authorship and create protagonists who are both female and autonomous. (Frye, 1986, p.47) “ narrators who are self-consciously telling their own stories” (Lanser, 1992, p. 18) Personal Voice
“ a practice in which narrative authority is invested in a definable community and textually inscribed either through multiple, mutually authorizing voices or through the voice of a single individual who is manifestly authorized by a community ” (Lanser, 1992, p. 21) . Communal Voice
singular form Communal Voice a simultaneous form one narrator speaks for a collective a plural “we” narrates a sequential form individual members of a group narrate in turn
Conclusion Interruptions & Obstacles Absence of Female Voice and Presence of Female’s Oppression Motherhood Experiences Three Voices Female Realities Authorial Voice Personal Voice Communal Voice Internal Struggles Suppressed Desires
Further Study Besides multiple voices, there are many other narrative strategies employed in her works to reveal her abiding theme which can be studied in depth. There must be more works written by other feminist writers that can be analyzed from the perspective of feminist narratology.