ECHOCARDIOGRAPHYCARDIOSONOGRAPHYCARDIAC ULTRASOUND- a noninvasive electronically driven cardio-vascular diagnostic examination utilizingultrasonics in displaying, recording, andcalculating cardiac structures and events.rrguzman
ADVANTAGES OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHYOVER OTHER DIAGNOSTIC TESTS1. Painless and more convenient for the patient.2. Safe; no known environmental hazard.3. Equipment is usually mobile.4. Short examination time.5. Valuable screening device for early diagnosis.6. Useful for following serial cardiac changesover extended period of time.7.Diagnosis can be made in an instant.-
MODALITIES OF CARDIOSONOGRAPHY1. M-mode-2. Real time; 2-Dimensional; 2D-3. Doppler-Utilizes a narrow ultrasonic beam to displayan “ice-pick one dimensional view” of the heart.Image displayed does not resemble actualcardiac structures.- yields a panoramic view of the heart that results in cross-sectional images that are anatomically recognizable,moving in real time.Used to record and calculate blood flowsand pressures within the heart.
FREQUENCYRESOLUTIONPENETRATION- number of sound wave cycles ina given time.-ability to discriminate the interfacebetween 2 very close objects.- ability to transmit sufficient ultra-sonic energy through the chest toprovide a satisfactory image.↑ Frequency → ↑ Resolution, ↓ Penetration↓ Frequency → ↓ Resolution, ↑ Penetration
ATTENUATIONSIDE LOBENEAR FIELD CLUTTERACOUSTIC SHADOW-loss of ultrasound as it traverses a medium due toboth scattering and absorption- artefactual ultrasonic beam generated from the sideedges of individual transducer elements which are nowin the direction of the main beam- acoustic noise seen near the transducer due to highamplitude oscillations of the piezoelectric elements- weakened echoes from structures behind or beyondhigh intensity materials (e.g. calcifications, prosthetics)
TYPES OF TRANSDUCERS/ SCANNERSMECHANICAL SECTOR SCANNERELECTRONIC PHASED ARRAY SCANNER- moves the ultrasonic beam by way of an electricmotor (either rotating or oscillating)- usually bigger, vibrations maybe felt- less side lobes, greater attenuation- uses multiple small elements electronically firedindividually to create a single focused electronicbeam- usually much smaller in size, no vibrations- more side lobes, less attenuation