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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM<br />HYPERCALCEMIA<br />GLYCOSURIA<br />
HYPERCALCEMIA<br />DEFINITION<br />Hypercalcemia is a condition in which the calcium level in your blood is above normal. ...
Causes<br />Parathyroid glands<br />The main cause of hypercalcemia is overactivity in one or more of your parathyroid gla...
Symptoms and Causes <br />SYMPTOMS<br />Nausea and vomiting<br />Loss of appetite<br />Excessive thirst<br />Frequent urin...
Complications<br />Osteoporosis. If the bones continue to release calcium into the blood, can develop the bone-thinning di...
GLYCOSURIA<br />DEFINITION:Highlevels of sugars in the URINE. <br />Virtually all the glucose that is filtered through the...
Causes of glycosuria<br />The most common cause of glycosuria is untreated diabetes mellitus. This disease raises plasma g...
The urine test<br />
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Endocrine system

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Endocrine system

  1. 1. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM<br />HYPERCALCEMIA<br />GLYCOSURIA<br />
  2. 2. HYPERCALCEMIA<br />DEFINITION<br />Hypercalcemia is a condition in which the calcium level in your blood is above normal. Calcium maintain healthy bones. It also plays an important role in contracting muscles, releasing hormones and ensuring that nerves and brain function properly. High calcium levels, however, can interfere with these processes. <br />
  3. 3. Causes<br />Parathyroid glands<br />The main cause of hypercalcemia is overactivity in one or more of your parathyroid glands, which regulate blood calcium levels. Other causes of hypercalcemia include cancer, certain other medical disorders, some medications and excessive use of calcium and vitamin D supplements<br />
  4. 4. Symptoms and Causes <br />SYMPTOMS<br />Nausea and vomiting<br />Loss of appetite<br />Excessive thirst<br />Frequent urination<br />Constipation<br />Abdominal pain<br />Muscle weakness<br />Muscle and joint aches<br />Confusion<br />Lethargy and fatigue<br />CAUSES<br />Overactivity of parathyroid glands.<br />Cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer, as well as some cancers of the blood, such as multiple myeloma, increase the risk of hypercalcemia<br />Other diseases. Tuberculosis, an infectious lung disease, and sarcoidosis, an inflammatory disease that usually begins in lungs, a rare genetic disorder known as familial hypocalciurichypercalcemia causes an increase of calcium in blood because of faulty calcium receptors in the body.<br />Medications. Certain drugs — such as lithium, which is used to treat bipolar disorder — may increase the release of parathyroid hormone and cause hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics can cause elevated calcium levels in the blood by decreasing the amount of calcium in urine.<br />
  5. 5. Complications<br />Osteoporosis. If the bones continue to release calcium into the blood, can develop the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis, which could lead to bone fractures, spinal column curvature and loss of height.<br />Kidney stones. If urine contains too much calcium, crystals may form in the kidneys. Over time, the crystals may combine to form kidney stones (renal lithiasis). Blockage from a stone can lead to kidney damage, and passing a stone can be extremely painful.<br />Kidney failure. Severe hypercalcemia can damage the kidneys, limiting their ability to cleanse the blood and eliminate fluid. If kidney damage is severe, can lead to lose the kidney function permanently, resulting in end-stage renal disease. <br />Nervous system problems. Because calcium helps regulate the nervous system, severe hypercalcemia can lead to confusion, dementia and coma, which can be fatal.<br />Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia).Hypercalcemia can affect the electrical impulses that regulate the heartbeat, causing the irregular heartbeat.<br />
  6. 6. GLYCOSURIA<br />DEFINITION:Highlevels of sugars in the URINE. <br />Virtually all the glucose that is filtered through the glomeruli is reabsorbed by the proximal renal tubule and so glycosuria represents an abnormal state. <br />The amount of glucose not reabsorbed by the kidneys is usually less than 0.1%. Adults excrete about 65 mg of glucose per day and standard techniques do not detect this level.<br />
  7. 7. Causes of glycosuria<br />The most common cause of glycosuria is untreated diabetes mellitus. This disease raises plasma glucose levels far above normal, and beyond a certain threshold, the excess glucose is excreted by the kCauses:<br />idneys, taking water with it and producing diuresis. <br />Pregnancy :is more common during pregnancy because of the lowering of the renal threshold for glucose excretion.<br />High sugar diet <br />Following a gastrectomy<br />Hyperthyroidism<br />Liver disease<br />Raised intracranial pressure<br />Liver disease<br />
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  9. 9. The urine test<br />

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