Blood and the Lymphatic and Immune systems<br />Hodgkin’s disease<br />Sarcoidosis<br />ELISA <br />
Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease)<br />Hodgkin's lymphoma — formerly known as Hodgkin's disease — is a cancer of the ...
Causes,riskfactors,tests<br />Causes, incidence, and risk factors<br />The first sign of this cancer is often an enlarged ...
Symptoms<br /><ul><li>Fatigue
Fever and chills that come and go
Itching all over the body that cannot be explained
Loss of appetite
Soaking night sweats
Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin (swollen glands)
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Blood and the lymphatic and immune systems

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Blood and the lymphatic and immune systems

  1. 1. Blood and the Lymphatic and Immune systems<br />Hodgkin’s disease<br />Sarcoidosis<br />ELISA <br />
  2. 2. Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease)<br />Hodgkin's lymphoma — formerly known as Hodgkin's disease — is a cancer of the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. <br />In Hodgkin's lymphoma, cells in the lymphatic system grow abnormally and may spread beyond the lymphatic system. As Hodgkin's lymphoma progresses, it compromises your body's ability to fight infection. <br />Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of two common types of cancers of the lymphatic system. The other type, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is far more common. <br />
  3. 3. Causes,riskfactors,tests<br />Causes, incidence, and risk factors<br />The first sign of this cancer is often an enlarged lymph node which appears without a known cause. <br />The cause is not known. Hodgkin's lymphoma is most common among people ages 15 - 35 and 50 - 70. Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to contribute to most cases.<br />Signs and tests<br />The disease may be diagnosed after:<br />Biopsy of suspected tissue, usually a lymph node biopsy<br />Bone marrow biopsy<br />Blood chemistry tests including protein levels, liver function tests, kidney function tests, and uric acid level<br />CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis<br />Complete blood count (CBC) to check for anemia and white blood count<br />PET scan<br />
  4. 4. Symptoms<br /><ul><li>Fatigue
  5. 5. Fever and chills that come and go
  6. 6. Itching all over the body that cannot be explained
  7. 7. Loss of appetite
  8. 8. Soaking night sweats
  9. 9. Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin (swollen glands)
  10. 10. Weight loss that cannot be explained
  11. 11. Other symptoms that may occur with this disease:
  12. 12. Coughing, chest pains, or breathing problems if there are swollen lymph nodes in the chest
  13. 13. Excessive sweating
  14. 14. Pain or feeling of fullness below the ribs due to swollen spleen or liver
  15. 15. Pain in lymph nodes after drinking alcohol
  16. 16. Skin blushing or flushing</li></li></ul><li>Sarcoidosis<br />Sarcoidosisis a disease in which swelling (inflammation) occurs in the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, or other tissues<br />Causes, incidence, and risk factors<br />The cause of the disease is unknown. In sarcoidosis, clumps of abnnormal tissue (granulomas) form in certain organs of the body. Granulomas are clusters of immune cells.<br />The disease can affect almost any organ of the body, but it most commonly affects the lungs. <br />Possible causes of sarcoidosis include:<br />Excess sensitivity to environmental factors<br />Genetics<br />Extreme immune response to infection<br />The condition is more common in African Americans than Caucasians. Females are usually affected more often than males. The disease typically begins between the ages of 20 and 40. Sarcoidosis is very rare in young children.<br />
  17. 17. Sarcoidosis<br />Sarcoid –stage 1 <br />Bihilarlymphadenopathy<br />Sarcoid –stage 4<br />fibrocystic sarcoidosis<br />with upward hilar retraction, cystic & bullous changes<br />
  18. 18. ELISA<br />Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample.<br />
  19. 19. This test is usually the first one used to detect infection with HIV. If antibodies to HIV are present (positive), the test is usually repeated to confirm the diagnosis. If ELISA is negative, other tests are not usually needed. This test has a low chance of having a false result after the first few weeks that a person is infected.<br />
  20. 20. ELISA and HIV diagnostic<br />If the EIA/ELISA test is negative, no additional testing is done. If the EIA/ELISA screening test is positive, that result must be confirmed with a more specific test called "Western Blot."<br />

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