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Nature of Tourism as an Industry


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HRTM 121 First Chapter

Published in: Travel
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Nature of Tourism as an Industry

  1. 1. The Nature of Tourism as an Industry Cris Edren L. dela Peña
  2. 2. Concepts of “Travel” and “Tourism” TRAVEL comprises all journeys from one place to another. It includes all journeys made by people: • who enter a country for leisure, • to work, • reside, • study or • who just pass through a country without stopping.
  3. 3. Concepts of “Travel” and “Tourism” TOURISM comprises the activities of persons travelling to ` and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes. Source: UNWTO
  4. 4. Categories of tourism based on UNWTO definition Domestic Tourism Trips made by local residents within their own countries. `
  5. 5. Categories of tourism based on UNWTO definition International Tourism ` Trips between two countries.
  6. 6. The tourist leaves Country A (which is a tourist generating country) to Country B (which is a tourist receiving country). From the point of view of Country A, this person is an outbound tourist; but from the point of view of Country B, he or she is an inbound tourist.
  7. 7. International Tourism in 2013 - Key Trends And Outlook • International tourist arrivals (overnight visitors) grew by 5% worldwide in 2013, reaching a record 1087 million arrivals, after topping the 1 billion mark in 2012. • Asia and the Pacific recorded the strongest growth with a 6% increase in arrivals, followed by Europe and Africa (both +5%). • In the Americas, international arrivals grew by 3%, while in the Middle East they were flat.
  8. 8. International Tourism in 2013 - Key Trends And Outlook • International tourism receipts reached US$ 1159 billion worldwide in 2013, up from US$ 1078 billion in 2012. • With a 5% increase in real terms, the growth in international tourism receipts equalled the growth in arrivals. • China has consolidated its position as the number one tourism source market in the world, spending US$ 129 billion on international tourism.
  9. 9. TOP TOURIST DESTINATION S OF THE WORLD RANK International Tourist Arrival (million) 2013 1. France 83.0 2. United States 69.8 3. Spain 60.7 4. China 55.7 5. Italy 47.7 6. Turkey 37.8 7. Germany 31.5 8. United Kingdom 31.2 9. Russian Federation 28.4 10. Thailand 26.5 Source: UNWTO
  10. 10. INTERNATIONA L TOURISM RECEIPTS RANK International Tourism Receipts (billion) 2013 1. United States 139.6 2. Spain 60.4 3. France 56.1 4. China 51.7 5. Macau (China) 51.6 6. Italy 43.9 7. Thailand 42.9 8. Germany 41.2 9. United Kingdom 40.6 10. Hongkong (China) 38.9 Source: UNWTO
  11. 11. INTERNATIONA L TOURISM EXPENDITURE S RANK International Tourism Expenditures (billion) 2013 1. China 128.6 2. United States 86.2 3. Germany 85.9 4. Russian Federation 53.5 5. United Kingdom 52.6 6. France 42.4 7. Canada 35.2 8. Australia 28.4 9. Italy 27.0 10. Brazil 25.1 Source: UNWTO
  12. 12. Travellers Any person who is taking a trip within or outside his/her own country of residence irrespective of the purpose of travel, means of transport used, even though he/she may be travelling on foot.
  13. 13. Tourist A tourist is a person who travels to destinations outside his/her residence and working place, and stays for at least 24 hours, for the purpose of leisure or business.
  14. 14. Excursionis An etxcursionist is a person who temporarily visits a destination and stays for less than 24 hours, for the purpose of leisure or business, but not for transit.
  15. 15. TOURISM PRODUCTS Travel products are a kind of service, and tourism consumers differentiate between travel products provided by different providers on the basis of their own feelings about service quality when making their purchasing decisions.
  16. 16. CHARACTERISTIC S OF TOURISM PRODUCTS Intangible nature Tourists can never see, hear, taste or touch travel products before they buy them. The inseparability of production and consumption When organizations in the tourism industry provide services to tourists, this is the exact moment that tourists consume such services, and the two cannot be separated in terms of time.
  17. 17. CHARACTERISTIC S OF TOURISM PRODUCTS Differentiation This means that the elements that make up travel products and their quality standards are difficult to control in a unified manner. Perishability Travel products cannot be stored like physical products and prepared for sale in the future.
  18. 18. CHARACTERISTIC S OF TOURISM PRODUCTS Complementarity Tourism is made up of activities such as eating, accommodation, travel, entertainment and touring. Immobility of ownership This refers to the fact that it is only when services are purchased that activities can be enjoyed or equipment can be used.
  19. 19. TOURIST DESTINATIO N A geographical unit which the tourist visits and where he stays. It must have attractions, amenities or facilities and accessibility.
  20. 20. TOURIST ATTRACTION Natural
  21. 21. TOURIST ATTRACTION Man-made
  23. 23. FACILITIES and SERVICES Popular attractions will grow into important tourist destinations. Services and facilities such as hotels, restaurants and shops would gather around the attractions for serving the tourists.
  24. 24. ACCESSIBILIT Y From a geographical point of view, a tourist destination can be a resort, a city, an area within a country, the whole country or a larger area of the globe. Therefore, the development and maintenance of efficient transport is important in stimulating tourist flows between tourist generating areas and tourist receiving areas.
  25. 25. NATURAL RESOURCES Different types of Natural Resources: • Climate • Natural Features (which would be classified as ‘scenery’ and ‘vegetation and wildlife’
  26. 26. HISTORICAL ATTRACTION Historic attractions include historic relics, sites, history museums and buildings. All of these have special significance in relation to historical events or people.
  27. 27. CULTURAL ATTRACTION Cultural attractions include the cultural traditions and activities originating from the history and customs of a group of people.
  28. 28. RELIGIOUS ATTRACTION This type of tourism may include pilgrimages, meetings or visits to religious headquarters and historical sites.
  29. 29. Architecture Theme and amusement parks BUILT ATTRACTIONS or FACILITIES Zoos Aquariums
  30. 30. Sports Event SPECIAL EVENTS and FESTIVALS Arts and Culture Commercial Events
  32. 32. CLASSIFICATIO N OF TOURISTS • COHEN’S classification • PLOG’S classification
  34. 34. COHEN’S CLASSIFICATION The Organized Mass Tourist The organized mass tourists are the least adventurous and spend most of their time in their comfortable “environmental bubble” throughout their trip. “Environmental bubble” means the tourists surrounded by his/her similar living environment while he/she is abroad.
  35. 35. COHEN’S CLASSIFICATION Individual Mass Tourist This type of tourists is similar to the organized mass tourist, except that the tour is not entirely fixed. The tourist has a certain amount of control over his/her time and itinerary, and is not bound to a group. However, all the major arrangements are still made through a tour agency. They are still confined by their “environmental bubble”.
  36. 36. COHEN’S CLASSIFICATION Explorer This type of tourists arranges their trips alone. They try to go somewhere unusual, but still look for comfortable sleeping places and reliable means of transportation. The explorers dare to leave their “environmental bubble” more readily than the organized mass tourists and individual mass tourists, but they are still careful about their ventures.
  37. 37. COHEN’S CLASSIFICATION Drifter This type of tourists goes further away from the “environmental bubble” and from the accustomed ways of life in their home countries. They keep away from any kind of connection with the tourism establishment, such as hotels and tour coaches. They try to live the way the locals live, and to share their houses, food, and habits.
  39. 39. PLOG’S CLASSIFICATION Allocentric Type An allocentric tourist is a person who seeks new experiences and adventure in a variety of activities. This person is outgoing and self-confident in behavior. Prefers to fly and to explore new and unusual areas before others do so. Enjoy meeting people from foreign or different cultures.
  40. 40. PLOG’S CLASSIFICATION Psychocentric Type Psychocentrics are more conservatively oriented. They tend to be inhibited and non-adventuresome. They prefer to return to familiar travel destinations where they can relax and know what types of food and activity to expect.
  41. 41. PLOG’S CLASSIFICATION Mid-centric Type There is a large number of people falling between the allocentric and the psychocentric types of tourists. This type of tourists is called mid-centrics. Mid-centric tourists are not particularly adventurous, but they are receptive to new experience.
  42. 42. The Nature of Tourism as an Industry Cris Edren L. dela Peña