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  • Minimalism

    1. 1. MINIMALISM By: Ashley Banks Cristina Bugescu
    2. 2. Also known as… <ul><li>ABC art </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal art </li></ul><ul><li>Reductivism </li></ul><ul><li>Rejective art </li></ul><ul><li>Literalist Art </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Minimalism? <ul><li>Minimalism describes movements in carious forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental form. </li></ul><ul><li>It is identified with developments in post-World War II Western Art. </li></ul><ul><li>Most strongly with American visual arts in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Features <ul><li>Geometric </li></ul><ul><li>Often cubic forms purged of much metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Equality of parts </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Solid planes of color </li></ul><ul><li>Normally precise </li></ul><ul><li>Hard-edged </li></ul>
    5. 5. Important Feature <ul><li>Reducing the work to the smallest number of colors, values, shapes, lines, and textures, also the simplest forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: No distractions of composition, theme…etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Color not used to express mood or feelings. </li></ul>
    6. 6. More Features… <ul><li>Normally cool hues or unmixed colors straight from the tube </li></ul><ul><li>Often based on a grid and mathematically composed. </li></ul><ul><li>Thrives on simplicity in both content and form </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial materials </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The use of industrial materials was common in order to eliminate the evidence of the artists hand. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Main Minimalist Artists <ul><li>Donald Judd </li></ul><ul><li>Agnes Martin </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Stella </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Morris </li></ul>
    8. 8. Influences <ul><li>Minimalists were influenced by composers John Cage and LaMonte Young, poet William Carlos Williams and the landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Donald Judd <ul><li>American sculptor, painter, and writer </li></ul><ul><li>First artist to have a one man exhibition in 1957. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1960-62 he went from painting to sculpting and became leading exponent in of Minimalism. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Donald Judd <ul><li>His work, Judd sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of his work is of simple cubes or other geometric units that stand on the floor or are hanging from the wall. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Donald Judd’s Early Work <ul><li>His first solo exhibition, of expressionist paintings, opened in New York in 1957. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of his output was in freestanding &quot;specific objects&quot; that used simple, often repeated forms to explore space and the use of space. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that art should not represent anything, that it should unequivocally stand on its own and simply exist. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Donald Judd’s Work… Born in Excelsior Springs, MO, 3 June 1928; † in New York, 12 Feb 1994 .
    13. 13. Donald Judd installation- “Stack Without Title 1969”
    14. 14. Untitled 1971
    15. 15. Donald Judd Untitled (S. 187-192) -made in
    16. 16. Untitled -1980
    17. 17. Agnes Martin <ul><li>Her signature style is defined by an emphasis upon line, grids, and fields of extremely subtle color. </li></ul><ul><li>While minimalist in form, these paintings were quite different in spirit from those of her other minimalist counterparts, retaining small flaws and unmistakable traces of the artist's hand; she shied away from intellectualism , favoring the personal and spiritual. </li></ul>
    18. 18. More Agnes Martin <ul><li>Her paintings, statements, and influential writings often reflect an interest in Eastern philosophy, especially Taoist . </li></ul><ul><li>Because of her work's added spiritual dimension, which became more and more dominant after 1967, she preferred to be classified as an abstract expressionist </li></ul>
    19. 19. Stars
    20. 20. Praise- 1972
    21. 21. Spotlight- 1963
    22. 22. On A Clear Day 1973
    23. 23. Frank Stella <ul><li>He is a significant figure in minimalism and post-painterly abstraction . </li></ul><ul><li>He is one of the most well-regarded postwar American painters who still works today. </li></ul><ul><li>he reacted against the expressive use of paint by most painters of the abstract expressionist movement, instead finding himself drawn towards the &quot;flatter&quot; surfaces of Barnett Newman 's </li></ul>
    24. 24. More Frank Stella <ul><li>He said that a picture was &quot;a flat surface with paint on it - nothing more&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the works are created by simply using the path of the brush stroke, very often using common house paint. </li></ul><ul><li>This new aesthetic found expression in a series of paintings, the Black Paintings (60) in which regular bands of black paint were separated by very thin pinstripes of unpainted canvas </li></ul><ul><li>Also in the 1960s, Stella began to use a wider range of colors, typically arranged in straight or curved lines. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Sunset Beach, Sketch- 1967
    26. 26. Color Chart, Reinventing Color 1950-????
    27. 27. The Symphony- 1999 ????
    28. 28. Flin Flon- 1970
    29. 29. Carl Andre <ul><li>Is an American minimalist artist recognized both for his ordered linear format and grid format sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>While at Phillips Academy he became friends with Hollis Frampton who would later influence Andre's radical approach to sculpture through their conversations about art [5] and through introductions to other artists </li></ul>
    30. 30. More Carl Andre <ul><li>His sculptures range from large public artworks (such as Stone Field Sculpture , 1977 in Hartford, CT [1] and Lament for the Children , 1976 [2] in Long Island City, NY) to more intimate tile patterns arranged on the floor of an exhibition space (such as 144 Lead Square , 1969 [3] or Twenty-fifth Steel Cardinal , 1974). </li></ul>
    31. 31. Equivalent VIII  1966
    32. 32. Sulcus1980
    33. 33. Aluminum Steel Plain 1969
    34. 34. Unknown
    35. 35. Minimalist Music <ul><li>Minimal art, along with the music of Erik Satie and the aesthetics of John Cage , was a distinct influence on minimalist music. </li></ul><ul><li>Reacting against the complex, intellectually sophisticated style of modern music , several composers began to compose in a simple, literal style, thereby creating an extremely simple and accessible music. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Music Continued… <ul><li>La Monte Young, for example, composed a number of electronic “continuous frequency environments,” in which he generated a few pitches and then electronically sustained them, sometimes for days or weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Young added very little to this texture and virtually eliminated variation as a developmental technique. </li></ul><ul><li>They used simple harmonic and melodic patterns in their highly repetitive music. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Extra info: Donald Judd <ul><li>His signature works are box creations designed for specific sites. Perhaps his most important lasting legacy is the large complex at Marfa, Texas, run by the Chinati Foundation, which he established to exhibit his own works, as well as other related artists and artistic events related to the minimalism movement. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Extra Info <ul><li>He preferred somewhat flatter surfaces, the likes of which were to be found in the work of Barnett Newman and Jasper Johns. Soon enough Stella began painting insuch a way as to emphasize identification of the objects in his  paintings  as the objects themselves, not just an expression of those objects. In other words his work was readily identifiable as what it was supposed to represent. </li></ul><ul><li>He was reproducing paintings with aluminum and copper paint. He had a fine sense for geometry and many of his early paintings used straight or curved lines, often in arcs, to excess. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Extra Info: Agnes Martin <ul><li>One of the leading contemporary artists in 20th-century America, Agnes Martin was known for her monochromatic, geometric grid painting that combined paint and faintly wavering pencil lines.  She is considered a forerunner of Minimalist art.  She began her career in New York, and spent her later years in New Mexico from where she managed to maintain a national reputation.   </li></ul>
    40. 40. Extra Info: Carl Andre <ul><li>The experience with blue collar labor and the ordered nature of conducting freight trains would have a later influence on Andre's sculpture and artistic personality. For example, it was not uncommon for Andre to dress in overalls and a blue work shirt, even to the most formal occasions.“ In 1969 Andre helped organize the Art Workers Coalition . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1970 he had a one man exhibition at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum , and has had one man exhibitions and participated in group shows in major museums, galleries, and kunsthalles throughout America and Europe. </li></ul>