Research Methods

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Research Methods

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Research Methods

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODS http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  2. 2. KINDS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>A. Basic Research </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>subjects are either healthy humans or experimental animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aims to develop understanding of normal events in the human body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. KINDS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>B. Epidemiological Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uses populations or groups of healthy and or diseased subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primarily used for the identification of risk factors and causes of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basis for development of preventive measures </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. KINDS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>C. Clinical Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>done on patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding of disease process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identification of determinants of outcome of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for development of technology for diagnosis and treatment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>A. Technical </li></ul><ul><li>1. Identification and definition of the </li></ul><ul><li> problem </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>analysis of needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>review of literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determination of significance of the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formulation of hypothesis and categorization of variables </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>A. Technical </li></ul><ul><li>2. Planning the Research </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>statement of objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>selection of study population and subjects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>choosing research design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>method of data collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plan of data processing and analysis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>A. Technical </li></ul><ul><li>3. Implementation of Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Interpretation and conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>5. Reporting of the study results </li></ul>
  8. 8. BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>B. Administrative </li></ul><ul><li>1. General preparations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secure resources for implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hiring and training of personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scheduling of activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preparation of study area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sampling of study group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>B. Administrative </li></ul><ul><li>2. Feasibility study </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pre-testing of questionnaires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Termination of study </li></ul>
  10. 10. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>A. Research problem - question to be answered or resolved </li></ul><ul><li>B. Sources of Research Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serendipity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis of needs and practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organized and systematic determination of research needs </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>C. Criteria for a Good Research Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. researchability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be resolved through research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>does not require value judgment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>problem: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>affects a large population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has serious morbidity consequences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is related to on-going projects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>C. Criteria for a Good Research Problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. significance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>answer: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fills a gap in knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has practical application </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will improve the practice of profession </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>C. Criteria for a Good Research Problem </li></ul><ul><li>3. feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate number of subjects can be gathered. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures are technically possible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information needed can be collected. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources are available. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study can be completed within a reasonable period. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>C. Criteria for a Good Research Problem </li></ul><ul><li>4. critical mass </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>broad in scope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>5. interest </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>within national or institutional mission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. PROBLEM CLARIFICATION <ul><li>dissection of broad problems into its facets or sub-problems </li></ul><ul><li>aided by literature review </li></ul><ul><li>Each sub-problem should be researchable. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers to sub-problems should adequately answer the main problem. </li></ul>
  16. 16. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>A. Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tentative answer to the research problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Uses of a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides basis for testing statistical significance of findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for sample size determination </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>C. Types of Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Null </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One-tailed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two-tailed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>D. Uses of Null Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to test safety of drugs and other interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for “proving” that a health belief is a myth or is erroneous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E. Uses of Alternative Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for testing risk and prognostic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for testing intervention </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>F. Methods of Formulating Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>1. method of difference </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If two different populations give rise to marked differences in frequency of disease and a particular factor can be identified in one population but not in the other, then the presence of this factor may be a cause of the disease. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex.: socio-economic factor and disease frequency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>F. Methods of Formulating Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>2. method of agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a factor is similarly distributed among different events or circumstances associated with the disease, then the factor may be a cause of the disease. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex.: blood and other body fluids are common to the different modes of transmission associated with HIV </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>F. Methods of Formulating Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>3. method of concomitant variation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the frequency or strength of a factor correspondingly varies with the frequency of disease, the factor may be causally related to the disease. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex.: amount of alcohol consumption and frequency of primary liver cancer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>F. Methods of Formulating Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>4. method of analogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How a disease is distributed in the population may have a similar pattern to that of some other disease, whose causation has already been more or less established. This suggests that certain causes may be common to both diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex.: malaria and Burkitt’s lymphoma insect vector </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. SETTING OF OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Research Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what the researcher expects to achieve; solution to the research problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Importance of Setting Objectives : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give an indication of the variables to be studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guide in choice of research design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indicate the data to be collected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aid in planning analysis of results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bases for interpretation of results </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. SETTING OF OBJECTIVES <ul><li>C. Types of Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>1. General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overall purpose of the research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>derived from the statement of the main problem and the hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statements of the specific outcome expected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on statements of the sub-problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requirements – SMART: S pecific, M easurable, A ttainable, R ealistic, T ime-bound </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. SETTING OF OBJECTIVES <ul><li>D. Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification of Variables in an Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>independent variable – variable which is assumed to be the factor or the cause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dependent variable – variable that is assumed to be the effect or outcome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>confounding variable – variable other than the exposure variable under investigation that is a risk factor of the disease and is associated with but not a consequence of the exposure and is likewise associated with the dependent variable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE RESEARCH DESIGN <ul><li>Summary of Requirements of Each Type of Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Study Design </li></ul><ul><li> Descriptive Cross- Case- Cohort Sectional Control </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Sample Size √ √ √ √ </li></ul><ul><li>Sample representative </li></ul><ul><li>of target population √ √ - - </li></ul><ul><li>Controls - - √ √ </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity of </li></ul><ul><li>comparison groups - - √ √ </li></ul>
  27. 27. CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE RESEARCH DESIGN <ul><li>B. Sources of Error in Observational Study Designs </li></ul><ul><li>  Cross-sectional Case- control Cohort </li></ul><ul><li>Probability of : </li></ul><ul><li>selection bias medium high low </li></ul><ul><li>recall bias high high low </li></ul><ul><li>loss to ff-up NA low high </li></ul><ul><li>confounding medium medium low </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Data Collection (Note: see section on measurement of Health and Disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Processing </li></ul><ul><li>A. Data processing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>process of converting data into a form that will facilitate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> statistical analysis </li></ul>
  29. 29. DATA PROCESSING <ul><li>B. Steps </li></ul><ul><li>1. editing – checking for completeness, consistency and accuracy of data </li></ul><ul><li>2. coding - conversion of data into numbers or symbols which can be more easily </li></ul><ul><li>tabulated and counted </li></ul><ul><li>3. creation of data file - storing data for future processing </li></ul><ul><li>4. summarization – creation of master tables, frequency tables, etc. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Data Analysis (Note: see section on Statistical Inference and Hypothesis Testing and relevant sections in Epidemiology) </li></ul>
  31. 31. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING <ul><li>A. Research Proposal/Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>written plan of the research process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guides investigator in executing project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basis for evaluation of merit and feasibility of the project </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING <ul><li>B. Stages in Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>1. Step 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem ID, Hypothesis formulation, Objectives, Research design, Data collection planning, Development of data processing, Choosing statistical analysis method </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING <ul><li>B. Stages in Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Step 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling of various phases, Determining personnel requirement, List needed facilities, Budget preparation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Step 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing of proposal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING <ul><li>C. Parts of Research Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel and Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>References </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proponents’ Biodata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul></ul>

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