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Medical Ethics

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Medical Ethics

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Medical Ethics

  1. 1. Medical Ethics
  2. 2. Ethics <ul><li>Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>It encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nonmaleficence <ul><li>First, Do no Harm. </li></ul><ul><li>(primum non nocere). </li></ul><ul><li>“  I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Beneficence <ul><li>a practitioner should act in the best interest of the patient </li></ul>
  5. 5. Autonomy <ul><li>The patient is free to choose and implement one’s own decisions, free from deceit, constraint or coercion. </li></ul><ul><li>the patient has the right to refuse or choose their treatment </li></ul><ul><li>(Voluntas aegroti suprema lex.) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fidelity <ul><li>strict observance of promises, duties </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugal faithfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual obligation between patient and physician to respect integrity and personhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires persons not to be treated as things , they are of primary value </li></ul>
  7. 7. Veracity <ul><li>habitual observance of truth in speech or statement </li></ul><ul><li>The physician needs to disclose factual information so that the patient can exercise personal autonomy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Confidentiality <ul><li>“ whatsoever I shall see/hear in the course of my profession as well as outside my profession in my intercourse with men, if it be what should not be published abroad, I will not divulge”. </li></ul><ul><li>is commonly applied to conversations between doctors and patients </li></ul><ul><li>is commonly known as patient-physician privilege </li></ul>
  9. 9. Exceptions to Confidentiality <ul><li>Child custody disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicion of child/elder abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Public health dangers (venereal/communicable diseases, gunshot wounds) </li></ul><ul><li>Danger to self and others </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent patients </li></ul>
  10. 10. Informed Consent <ul><li>a person must be fully informed about and understand the potential benefits and risks of their choice of treatment </li></ul><ul><li>a verbal agreement between doctor and patient </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions : </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency exception </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic privilege </li></ul>
  11. 11. Justice <ul><li>Fair and equitable distribution of scarce goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Physicians should not deny patients who cannot pay the chance of being interviewed, diagnosed and managed. </li></ul><ul><li>concerns the distribution of scarce health resources, and the decision of who gets what treatment (fairness and equality) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Dignity <ul><li>patient (and the person treating the patient) have the right to dignity </li></ul>

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