Growth, Development And Behavior


Published on

growth, development and behavior-pediatrics

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Growth, Development And Behavior

  2. 2. <ul><li>Newborn ( neonatal) period: begins at birth and include the 1 st month of life. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical examination: term newborn <ul><li>Average weights: 3.4 kg (7 ½ lb) </li></ul><ul><li>Average length: 50cm (20 in) </li></ul><ul><li>head circumference: 35 cm (14 in) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Hearing is well developed </li></ul>
  5. 5. Behavioral state: <ul><li>Quite sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Active sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Drowsy </li></ul><ul><li>Alert </li></ul><ul><li>Fussy </li></ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Behavioral state determines an infant’s muscle tone, spontaneous movement, electroencephalogram pattern and response to stimuli. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Developmental milestones in the first 2 yr of life
  8. 8. Gross motor: <ul><li>Hold head steady while sitting </li></ul><ul><li>Pulls to sit, with no head lag </li></ul><ul><li>Brings hands together in midline </li></ul><ul><li>Sits without support </li></ul><ul><li>Rolls back to stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Walks alone </li></ul><ul><li>Runs </li></ul><ul><li>2 mos </li></ul><ul><li>3mos </li></ul><ul><li>3mos </li></ul><ul><li>6mos </li></ul><ul><li>6.5mos </li></ul><ul><li>12mos </li></ul><ul><li>16m0s </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fine motor: <ul><li>grasps rattle </li></ul><ul><li>Reaches for object </li></ul><ul><li>Palmar grasp done </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers object from hand to hand </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb-finger grasp </li></ul><ul><li>3.5mos </li></ul><ul><li>4mos </li></ul><ul><li>4mos </li></ul><ul><li>5.5mos </li></ul><ul><li>8mos </li></ul>
  10. 10. Communication and language: <ul><li>Smiles in response to face, voice </li></ul><ul><li>Monosyllabic babble </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits to NO </li></ul><ul><li>Follows one-step command w/ gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Follows one-step command w/o gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Say mama or dada </li></ul><ul><li>Points to object </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks first real word </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks 4-6 words </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks 10-15 words </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks 2 word sentences </li></ul><ul><li>1.5mos </li></ul><ul><li>6mos </li></ul><ul><li>7mos </li></ul><ul><li>7mos </li></ul><ul><li>10mos </li></ul><ul><li>10mos </li></ul><ul><li>10mos </li></ul><ul><li>12mos </li></ul><ul><li>15mos </li></ul><ul><li>18mos </li></ul><ul><li>19mos </li></ul>
  11. 11. cognitive: <ul><li>Stares momentarily at spot where object disappeared </li></ul><ul><li>Stares at own hand </li></ul><ul><li>Uncovers toys </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentric symbolic play </li></ul><ul><li>Uses stick to reach toy </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend plays with doll </li></ul><ul><li>2mos </li></ul><ul><li>4mos </li></ul><ul><li>8mos </li></ul><ul><li>12mos </li></ul><ul><li>17mos </li></ul><ul><li>17mos </li></ul>
  12. 12. The first year of life <ul><li>Age 0-2 months: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremendous growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective feeding routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable sleep-wake cycle </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Physical development: <ul><li>Weight decrease 10% below birthweight in the first week as a result of excretion of excess extravascular fluid and limited intake. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Infant regain or exceed birth weight by 2 weeks of age and should grow at approx 30 gms/day during the first month. </li></ul><ul><li>Period of fastest postnatal growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Smiling occurs involuntarily. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep and wakefulness are evenly distributed throughout the 24hr day </li></ul><ul><li>Learning also occurs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cognitive development: <ul><li>Infants habituate to the familiar, attending less and less to repeated stimuli and increasing their attention when the stimulus changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Infant can differentiate among patterns, colors and consonants. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize facial expression </li></ul>
  16. 16. Emotional development: <ul><li>Dependent on the environment to meet his or her need. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Age 2-6 month: <ul><li>Voluntary social smile. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing eye contact </li></ul>
  18. 18. Physical development: <ul><li>Between 3 and 4 months of age, the rate of growth slows to approx 20gm/day. </li></ul><ul><li>By 4 month, birth weight is doubled. </li></ul><ul><li>Grasp reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Roll over </li></ul><ul><li>Regular sleep wake cycle </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cognitive development: <ul><li>Qualitative change </li></ul><ul><li>4 months of age infants are described as hatching socially </li></ul><ul><li>Explore their own bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of self – first stage of personality development </li></ul>
  20. 20. Emotional development and communication: <ul><li>Distinct facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating games, increases social development. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ages 6-12 months <ul><li>Shows advances in cognitive understanding and communicative competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop will and intentions </li></ul>
  22. 22. Physical development: <ul><li>Growth slows more </li></ul><ul><li>By the first bday, birth weight has tripled, length has increased by 50%, and head circumference has increased by 10cm. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Sit unsupported (6-7mos) </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot while sitting (9-10mos) </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb finger grasp (8-9mos) </li></ul><ul><li>Neat finger grasp by 12 mos </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling to stand by 8mos </li></ul><ul><li>Walk by 1yr </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Motor achievements correlate with increasing myelinization and cerebellar growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth eruption occurs, usually starting with the mandibular central incisors </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth development reflects skeletal maturation and bone age. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cognitive development: <ul><li>At first everything goes into the mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>A major milestone is the achievement at about 9 mos. Of object permanence (constancy) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Emotional development: <ul><li>Stranger anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Poor weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>Tantrums </li></ul>
  27. 27. Communication: <ul><li>7mos adept of non verbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>9mos aware of the emotions </li></ul><ul><li>8 and 10mos babbling takes </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>First true word </li></ul>
  28. 28. The second year <ul><li>Age 12-18mos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rate slows further in the 2 nd yr of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appetite decline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in head circumference of 2cm over the yr. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Cognitive development: <ul><li>Exploration of the environment increases and mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Playthings </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation of parents and older children </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic play </li></ul>
  30. 30. Emotional development: <ul><li>Predominant mood changes </li></ul><ul><li>Tantrum </li></ul>
  31. 31. Linguistic development: <ul><li>Infants speak their first words </li></ul><ul><li>Respond appropriately to several simple statement </li></ul><ul><li>Points to major body parts and uses 4-6 words spontaneously and correctly </li></ul>
  32. 32. Age 18-24 months: <ul><li>Physical development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height and weight increase at a steady rate, w/ gain of 5in and 5lb. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 24mos, children are about ½ of their ultimate adult height. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head growth slows slightly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of adult head circumference is achieved by age 2 yrs. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Cognitive development: <ul><li>Object permanence is firmly established </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect are better understood </li></ul>
  34. 34. Emotional development: <ul><li>Separation anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Self-conscious awareness </li></ul>
  35. 35. Linguistic development: <ul><li>Most dramatic development </li></ul><ul><li>Childs vocabulary balloons, the beginning of grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Understand 2-step commands </li></ul>