General Pathology Review

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General Pathology Review

General Pathology Review

  1. 1. GENERAL PATHOLOGY REVIEW CRISBERT I. CUALTEROS,M.D. http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  2. 2. Cellular Adaptations, Cell Injury, and Cell Death <ul><li>Pathology is literally the study (logos) of suffering (pathos) </li></ul><ul><li>The four aspects of a disease process that form the core of pathology are: </li></ul><ul><li>its cause ( etiology ) , </li></ul><ul><li>the mechanisms of its development ( pathogenesis ) </li></ul><ul><li>the structural alterations induced in the cells and organs of the body ( morphologic changes ) </li></ul><ul><li>the functional consequences of the morphologic changes ( clinical significance ). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview: Cellular Responses to Stress and Noxious Stimuli <ul><li>Figure 1-1 Stages in the cellular response to stress and injurious stimuli. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                
  4. 4. Cellular Adaptations of Growth and Differentiation <ul><li>Cells respond to increased demand and external stimulation by hyperplasia or hypertrophy , and they respond to reduced supply of nutrients and growth factors by atrophy . In some situations, cells change from one type to another, a process called metaplasia . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Figure 1-2 The relationships between normal, adapted, reversibly injured, and dead myocardial cells. The cellular adaptation depicted here is hypertrophy, and the type of cell death is ischemic necrosis. In reversibly injured myocardium, generally effects are only functional, without any readily apparent gross or even microscopic changes. In the example of myocardial hypertrophy, the left ventricular wall is more than 2 cm in thickness (normal is 1 to 1.5 cm). In the specimen showing necrosis, the transmural light area in the posterolateral left ventricle represents an acute myocardial infarction. </li></ul>
  6. 6. HYPERPLASIA <ul><li>increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, usually resulting in increased volume of the organ or tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Hormonal hyperplasia- best exemplified by the proliferation of the glandular epithelium of the female breast at puberty and during pregnancy and the physiologic hyperplasia that occurs in the pregnant uterus. </li></ul>
  7. 7. HYPERTROPHY <ul><li>increase in the size of cells, resulting in an increase in the size of the organ . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Figure 1-3 Physiologic hypertrophy of the uterus during pregnancy. A , Gross appearance of a normal uterus (right) and a gravid uterus (removed for postpartum bleeding) (left). B, Small spindle-shaped uterine smooth muscle cells from a normal uterus (left) compared with large plump cells in gravid uterus (right) . </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
  9. 9. ATROPHY <ul><li>Shrinkage in the size of the cell by loss of cell substance </li></ul><ul><li>The common causes of atrophy are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Decreased workload (atrophy of disuse). </li></ul><ul><li>2.Loss of innervation (denervation atrophy). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Diminished blood supply. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Inadequate nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Loss of endocrine stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Aging (senile atrophy). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Pressure. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Figure 1-5 A, Atrophy of the brain in an 82-year-old male with atherosclerotic disease. Atrophy of the brain is due to aging and reduced blood supply. The meninges have been stripped. B, Normal brain of a 36-year-old male. Note that loss of brain substance narrows the gyri and widens the sulci. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
  11. 11. METAPLASIA <ul><li>reversible change in which one adult cell type (epithelial or mesenchymal) is replaced by another adult cell type </li></ul><ul><li>adaptive substitution of cells that are sensitive to stress by cell types better able to withstand the adverse environment. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Figure 1-6 Metaplasia. A , Schematic diagram of columnar to squamous metaplasia. B , Metaplastic transformation of esophageal stratified squamous epithelium ( left ) to mature columnar epithelium (so-called Barrett metaplasia). </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
  13. 13. Overview of Cell Injury and Cell Death <ul><li>Reversible cell injury- if the damaging stimulus is removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Irreversible injury and cell death- w ith continuing damage, at which time the cell cannot recover. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Figure 1-7 Stages in the evolution of cell injury and death. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                             
  15. 15. <ul><li>Figure 1-8 Schematic representation of a normal cell and the changes in reversible and irreversible cell injury. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
  16. 16. <ul><li>There are two types of cell death, necrosis and apoptosis </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas necrosis is always a pathologic process, apoptosis serves many normal functions and is not necessarily associated with cell injury . </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Feature Necrosis Apoptosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell size Enlarged (swelling) Reduced (shrinkage) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus Pyknosis -> karyorrhexis -> karyolysis Fragmentation into nucleosome size fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma Disrupted Intact; altered structure, especially </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane orientation of lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular Enzymatic digestion; may leak out of cell Intact; may be released in apoptotic bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent Frequent No </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Physiologic Invariably pathologic Often physiologic, means of or </li></ul><ul><li>pathologic role (culmination of irreversible cell injury) eliminating unwanted cells; may </li></ul><ul><li>be pathologic after some forms of cell injury, especially DNA damage </li></ul>
  18. 18. Causes of Cell Injury <ul><li>Oxygen Deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Agents and Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Immunologic Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Derangements </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional Imbalances </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mechanisms of Cell Injury <ul><li>There are, however, a number of principles that are relevant to most forms of cell injury: </li></ul><ul><li>1.The cellular response to injurious stimuli depends on the type of injury, its duration, and its severity. </li></ul><ul><li>2.The consequences of cell injury depend on the type, state, and adaptability of the injured cell . </li></ul><ul><li>3.Cell injury results from functional and biochemical abnormalities in one or more of several essential cellular components . </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The most important targets of injurious </li></ul><ul><li>stimuli are: </li></ul><ul><li>aerobic respiration involving mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and production of ATP; </li></ul><ul><li>integrity of cell membranes , on which the ionic and osmotic homeostasis of the cell and its organelles depends; </li></ul><ul><li>protein synthesis ; </li></ul><ul><li>cytoskeleton ; </li></ul><ul><li>integrity of the genetic apparatus of the cell . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Morphology of Cell Injury and Necrosis <ul><li>Cells undergo sequential biochemical and morphologic changes as they are progressively injured and ultimately die by necrosis. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reversible Injury <ul><li>Two patterns of reversible cell injury can be recognized under the light microscope: </li></ul><ul><li>1. cellular swelling - the first manifestation of almost all forms of injury to cells. </li></ul><ul><li>2. fatty change . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Necrosis
  24. 24. <ul><li>refers to a spectrum of morphologic changes that follow cell death in living tissue, largely resulting from the progressive degradative action of enzymes on the lethally injured cell. </li></ul><ul><li>in the setting of irreversible exogenous injury. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>result of denaturation of intracellular proteins and enzymatic digestion of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Necrotic cells show increased eosinophilia attributable in part to loss of the normal basophilia imparted by the RNA in the cytoplasm and in part to the increased binding of eosin to denatured intracytoplasmic proteins </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Figure 1-18 Ischemic necrosis of the myocardium. A , Normal myocardium. B , Myocardium with coagulation necrosis (upper two thirds of figure), showing strongly eosinophilic anucleate myocardial fibers. Leukocytes in the interstitium are an early reaction to necrotic muscle. Compare with A and with normal fibers in the lower part of the figure. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
  27. 27. <ul><li>Nuclear changes appear in the form of one of three patterns, all due to nonspecific breakdown of DNA : </li></ul><ul><li>pyknosis , characterized by nuclear shrinkage and increased basophilia. </li></ul><ul><li>karyorrhexis , the pyknotic or partially pyknotic nucleus undergoes fragmentation. </li></ul><ul><li>karyolysis, t he basophilia of the chromatin may fade </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Coagulative necrosis implies preservation of the basic outline of the coagulated cell for a span of at least some days </li></ul><ul><li>-When denaturation is the primary pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Liquefactive necrosis is characteristic of focal bacterial or, occasionally, fungal infections, because microbes stimulate the accumulation of inflammatory cells. </li></ul><ul><li>-In the instance of dominant enzyme digestion </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Figure 1-19 Coagulative and liquefactive necrosis. A , Kidney infarct exhibiting coagulative necrosis, with loss of nuclei and clumping of cytoplasm but with preservation of basic outlines of glomerular and tubular architecture. B , A focus of liquefactive necrosis in the kidney caused by fungal infection. The focus is filled with white cells and cellular debris, creating a renal abscess that obliterates the normal architecture. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  30. 30. <ul><li>Caseous necrosis , a distinctive form of coagulative necrosis, is encountered most often in foci of tuberculous infection </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Figure 1-20 A tuberculous lung with a large area of caseous necrosis. The caseous debris is yellow-white and cheesy. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                            
  32. 32. <ul><li>Fat necrosis , it is descriptive of focal areas of fat destruction, typically occurring as a result of release of activated pancreatic lipases into the substance of the pancreas and the peritoneal cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>-i.e. acute pancreatitis </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Figure 1-21 Foci of fat necrosis with saponification in the mesentery. The areas of white chalky deposits represent calcium soap formation at sites of lipid breakdown. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
  34. 34. Apoptosis
  35. 35. <ul><li>a pathway of cell death that is induced by a tightly regulated intracellular program in which cells destined to die activate enzymes that degrade the cells' own nuclear DNA and nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Death by apoptosis is a normal phenomenon that serves to eliminate cells that are no longer needed, as, for example, during development, and to maintain a steady number of various cell populations in tissues. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Death by apoptosis is also responsible for loss of cells in a variety of pathologic states </li></ul><ul><li>-i.e. Cell injury in certain viral diseases , such as viral hepatitis </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>The following morphologic features, characterize cells undergoing apoptosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell shrinkage. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin condensation. the most characteristic feature of apoptosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of cytoplasmic blebs and apoptotic bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or cell bodies, usually by macrophages. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Figure 1-26 A, Apoptosis of epidermal cells in an immune-mediated reaction. The apoptotic cells are visible in the epidermis with intensely eosinophilic cytoplasm and small, dense nuclei. H&E stain. B , High power of apoptotic cell in liver in immune-mediated hepatic cell injury. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Intracellular Accumulations
  41. 41. <ul><li>One of the manifestations of metabolic derangements in cells is the intracellular accumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances. </li></ul><ul><li>The stockpiled substances fall into three categories: </li></ul><ul><li>a normal cellular constituent accumulated in excess , such as water, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates; </li></ul><ul><li>an abnormal substance , either exogenous, such as a mineral or products of infectious agents, or endogenous, such as a product of abnormal synthesis or metabolism; </li></ul><ul><li>a pigment . </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Figure 1-34 A, The liver of alcohol abuse (chronic alcoholism). Hyaline inclusions in the hepatic parenchymal cell in the center appear as eosinophilic networks disposed about the nuclei (arrow) . B, Electron micrograph of alcoholic hyalin. The material is composed of intermediate (prekeratin) filaments and an amorphous matrix. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
  43. 43. <ul><li>Figure 1-35 Mechanisms of intracellular accumulations: </li></ul><ul><li>abnormal metabolism, as in fatty change in the liver; </li></ul><ul><li>mutations causing alterations in protein folding and transport, as in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency; </li></ul><ul><li>deficiency of critical enzymes that prevent breakdown of substrates that accumulate in lysosomes, as in lysosomal storage diseases; and </li></ul><ul><li>inability to degrade phagocytosed particles, as in hemosiderosis and carbon pigment accumulation. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Steatosis (Fatty Change) <ul><li>All major classes of lipids can accumulate in cells: triglycerides, cholesterol/cholesterol esters, and phospholipids. </li></ul><ul><li>steatosis and fatty change -abnormal accumulations of triglycerides within parenchymal cells often seen in the liver because it is the major organ involved in fat metabolism. In industrialized nations, by far the most common cause of significant fatty change in the liver (fatty liver) is alcohol abuse </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Figure 1-36 Fatty liver. A , Schematic diagram of the possible mechanisms leading to accumulation of triglycerides in fatty liver. Defects in any of the steps of uptake, catabolism, or secretion can result in lipid accumulation. B , High-power detail of fatty change of the liver. In most cells, the well-preserved nucleus is squeezed into the displaced rim of cytoplasm about the fat vacuole. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  46. 46. Cholesterol and Cholesterol Esters <ul><li>Accumulations, manifested histologically by intracellular vacuoles, seen in several pathologic processes. </li></ul><ul><li>-i.e. Cholesterolosis. Refers to the focal accumulations of cholesterol-laden macrophages in the lamina propria of the gallbladder. The mechanism of accumulation is unknown. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Figure 1-37 Cholesterolosis. Cholesterol-laden macrophages (foam cells) from a focus of gallbladder cholesterolosis ( arrow ). </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  48. 48. PROTEINS <ul><li>Intracellular accumulations of proteins usually appear as rounded, eosinophilic droplets, vacuoles, or aggregates in the cytoplasm. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Figure 1-38 Protein reabsorption droplets in the renal tubular epithelium. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
  50. 50. HYALINE CHANGE <ul><li>an alteration within cells or in the extracellular space, which gives a homogeneous, glassy, pink appearance in routine histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. </li></ul><ul><li>does not represent a specific pattern of accumulation. </li></ul>
  51. 51. GLYCOGEN <ul><li>Excessive intracellular deposits of glycogen are seen in patients with an abnormality in either glucose or glycogen metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>the glycogen masses appear as clear vacuoles within the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Staining with periodic acid schiff (PAS) reaction imparts a rose-to-violet color to the glycogen, </li></ul>
  52. 52. PIGMENTS <ul><li>colored substances, some of which are normal constituents of cells (e.g., melanin), whereas others are abnormal and collect in cells only under special circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Exogenous Pigments. The most common exogenous pigment is carbon or coal dust , Accumulations of this pigment blacken the tissues of the lungs (anthracosis) </li></ul><ul><li>- Tattooing is a form of localized, exogenous pigmentation of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Endogenous Pigments . Lipofuscin is an insoluble pigment, also known as lipochrome and wear-and-tear or aging pigment. Its importance lies in its being the telltale sign of free radical injury and lipid peroxidation. </li></ul><ul><li>- Melanin , is the only endogenous brown-black pigment . </li></ul><ul><li>- Hemosiderin is a hemoglobin-derived, golden yellow-to-brown, granular or crystalline pigment in which form iron is stored in cells. </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Figure 1-40 Lipofuscin granules in a cardiac myocyte as shown by A, light microscopy (deposits indicated by arrows ), and B, electron microscopy (note the perinuclear, intralysosomal location). </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
  54. 54. <ul><li>Figure 1-41 Hemosiderin granules in liver cells. A , H&E section showing golden-brown, finely granular pigment. B , Prussian blue reaction, specific for iron. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
  55. 55. Pathologic Calcification <ul><li>the abnormal tissue deposition of calcium salts, together with smaller amounts of iron, magnesium, and other mineral salts. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two forms of pathologic calcification: </li></ul><ul><li> 1. dystrophic calcification , when the deposition occurs locally in dying tissues ; it occurs despite normal serum levels of calcium and in the absence of derangements in calcium metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>2.metastatic calcification , almost always results from hypercalcemia secondary to some disturbance in calcium metabolism. </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Figure 1-42 View looking down onto the unopened aortic valve in a heart with calcific aortic stenosis. The semilunar cusps are thickened and fibrotic. Behind each cusp are seen irregular masses of piled-up dystrophic calcification </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  57. 57. <ul><li>END </li></ul>
  58. 58. Tissue Renewal and Repair: Regeneration, Healing, and Fibrosis
  59. 59. <ul><li>The body's ability to replace injured or dead cells and to repair tissues after inflammation is critical to survival. </li></ul><ul><li>When injurious agents damage cells and tissues, the host responds by setting in motion a series of events that serve to eliminate these agents, contain the damage, and prepare the surviving cells for replication. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Figure 3-1 Tissue response to injury. Repair after injury can occur by regeneration, which restores normal tissue, or by healing, which leads to scar formation and fibrosis. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Regeneration refers to growth of cells and tissues to replace lost structures </li></ul><ul><li>-the term is usually applied to processes such as liver and kidney growth after partial hepatectomy and unilateral nephrectomy. </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Healing is usually a tissue response: </li></ul><ul><li>to a wound (commonly in the skin) </li></ul><ul><li>to inflammatory processes in internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>to cell necrosis in organs incapable of regeneration. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Control of Normal Cell Proliferation and Tissue Growth <ul><li>Figure 3-2 Mechanisms regulating cell populations. Cell numbers can be altered by increased or decreased rates of stem cell input, by cell death due to apoptosis, or by changes in the rates of proliferation or differentiation. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Mechanisms of Tissue Regeneration <ul><li>Figure 3-11 Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Upper panel, The lobes of the liver of a rat are shown (M, median; RL and LL, right and left lateral lobes; C, caudate lobe). Partial hepatectomy removes two thirds of the liver (median and left lateral lobes), and only the right lateral and caudate lobes remain. After 3 weeks, the right lateral and caudate lobes enlarge to reach a mass equivalent to that of the original liver. Note that there is no regrowth of the median and left lateral lobes removed after partial hepatectomy. Lower panel, Timing of hepatocyte DNA replication, hepatocyte mitosis, and expression of messenger RNAs during liver regeneration. DNA replication is shown as the incorporation of tritiated thymidine × 10-4 (right-side scale). Mitosis presented as the percentage of hepatocytes undergoing mitosis ( right-side scale ). The expression of some of the many mRNAs in the regenerating rat liver is presented as fold elevation above normal ( left-side scale ). Expression of the proto-oncogenes c- fos, c- jun, and c- myc corresponds to the immediate early gene phase of gene expression during liver regeneration. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Figure 3-12 Regeneration of human liver. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the donor liver in living-donor hepatic transplantation. left panel, The liver of the donor before the operation. The right lobe, which will be used as a transplant, is outlined. Right panel, A scan of the liver 1 week after performance of partial hepatectomy to remove the right lobe. Note the great enlargement of the left lobe (outlined in the panel) without regrowth of the right lobe </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>growth occurs by enlargement of the lobes that remain after the operation- compensatory growth . </li></ul><ul><li>the end-point of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is the restitution of functional mass rather than form. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) and Cell-Matrix Interactions <ul><li>Cells grow, move, and differentiate in intimate contact with macromolecules outside the cell that constitute the ECM </li></ul><ul><li>The ECM is secreted locally and assembles into a network in the spaces surrounding cells </li></ul><ul><li>relevant to regeneration, healing, and fibrosis. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>Figure 3-14 Major components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including collagens, proteoglycans, and adhesive glycoproteins. Both epithelial and mesenchymal cells (e.g., fibroblasts) interact with ECM via integrins. To simplify the diagram, many ECM components (e.g., elastin, fibrillin, hyaluronan, syndecan) are not included. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  69. 69. COLLAGEN <ul><li>the most common protein in the animal world, providing the extracellular framework for all multicellular organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Without collagen, a human being would be reduced to a clump of cells, interconnected by a few neurons. </li></ul>
  70. 70. ELASTIN, FIBRILLIN, AND ELASTIC FIBERS <ul><li>found in the walls of large blood vessels, such as the aorta, and in the uterus, skin, and ligaments - require elasticity for their function </li></ul><ul><li>Although tensile strength is provided by the proteins of the collagen family, the ability of these tissues to recoil is provided by elastic fibers. </li></ul>
  71. 71. CELL ADHESION PROTEINS <ul><li>Most adhesion proteins, also called CAMs (cell adhesion molecules), can be classified into four main families: </li></ul><ul><li>1.immunoglobulin family CAMs, </li></ul><ul><li>2.cadherins, </li></ul><ul><li>3.integrins, </li></ul><ul><li>4.selectins. </li></ul><ul><li>These proteins are located in the cell membrane, where they function as receptors </li></ul>
  72. 72. PROTEOGLYCANS <ul><li>make up the third type of component in the ECM </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most common are heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. </li></ul><ul><li>They have diverse roles in regulating connective tissue structure and permeability. </li></ul><ul><li>integral membrane proteins and, act as modulators of cell growth and differentiation. </li></ul>
  73. 73. HYALURONIC ACID <ul><li>binds a large amount of water, forming a viscous hydrated gel that gives connective tissue the ability to resist compression forces. </li></ul><ul><li>helps provide resilience and lubrication to many types of connective tissue, notably for the cartilage in joints. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Repair by Healing, Scar Formation, and Fibrosis
  75. 75. <ul><li>regeneration involves the restitution of tissue components identical to those removed or killed. </li></ul><ul><li>healing is a fibroproliferative response that &quot; patches &quot; rather than restores a tissue. </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>complex but orderly phenomenon involving a number of processes: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Induction of an inflammatory process in response to the initial injury, with removal of damaged and dead tissue </li></ul><ul><li>2.Proliferation and migration of parenchymal and connective tissue cells </li></ul><ul><li>3.Formation of new blood vessels ( angiogenesis) and granulation tissue </li></ul><ul><li>4.Synthesis of ECM proteins and collagen deposition </li></ul><ul><li>5. Tissue remodeling </li></ul><ul><li>6. Wound contraction </li></ul><ul><li>7. Acquisition of wound strength </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>The repair process is influenced by many factors, including: </li></ul><ul><li>1.The tissue environment and the extent of tissue damage </li></ul><ul><li>2.The intensity and duration of the stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>3.Conditions that inhibit repair, such as the presence of foreign bodies or inadequate blood supply, </li></ul><ul><li>4.Various diseases that inhibit repair (diabetes in particular), and treatment with steroids. </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>The goal of the repair process is to restore the tissue to its original state. </li></ul><ul><li>The inflammatory reaction set in motion by the injury: </li></ul><ul><li>1.contains the damage </li></ul><ul><li>2.eliminates the damaging stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>3.removes injured tissue </li></ul><ul><li>4.initiates the deposition of ECM components in the area of injury. </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>For tissues that are incapable of regeneration, repair is accomplished by connective tissue deposition, producing a scar. </li></ul><ul><li>If damage persists, inflammation becomes chronic, and tissue damage and repair may occur concurrently. Connective tissue deposition in these conditions is usually referred to as fibrosis. </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells begin proliferating to form a specialized type of tissue that is the hallmark of healing, called granulation tissue </li></ul><ul><li>formation of new small blood vessels ( angiogenesis ) </li></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>Figure 3-17 A, Granulation tissue showing numerous blood vessels, edema, and a loose ECM containing occasional inflammatory cells. This is a trichrome stain that stains collagen blue; minimal mature collagen can be seen at this point. B, Trichrome stain of mature scar, showing dense collagen, with only scattered vascular channels. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  82. 82. ANGIOGENESIS <ul><li>Figure 3-18 Angiogenesis by mobilization of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow and from pre-existing vessels (capillary growth). EPCs are mobilized from the bone marrow and may migrate to a site of injury or tumor growth ( upper panel ). The homing mechanisms have not yet been defined. At these sites, EPCs differentiate and form a mature network by linking with existing vessels. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
  83. 83. <ul><li>Figure 3-18 In angiogenesis from pre-existing vessels, endothelial cells from these vessels become motile and proliferate to form capillary sprouts ( lower panel ). Regardless of the initiating mechanism, vessel maturation (stabilization) involves the recruitment of pericytes and smooth muscle cells to form the periendothelial layer. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Growth Factors and Receptors Involved in Angiogenesis <ul><li>VEGF emerges as the most important growth factor in adult tissues undergoing physiologic angiogenesis (e.g., proliferating endometrium) as well as pathologic angiogenesis seen in chronic inflammation, wound healing, tumors, and diabetic retinopathy. </li></ul><ul><li>stimulates the mobilization of endothelial cell precursors and enhances the proliferation and differentiation of these cells at the site of angiogenesis. </li></ul>
  85. 85. SCAR FORMATION <ul><li>Growth factors and cytokines released at the site of injury induce fibroblast proliferation and migration into the granulation tissue framework of new blood vessels and loose ECM that initially forms at the repair site. </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>three processes that participate in the formation of a scar: </li></ul><ul><li>emigration and proliferation of fibroblasts in the site of injury , </li></ul><ul><li>deposition of ECM , </li></ul><ul><li>tissue remodeling . </li></ul>
  87. 87. Cutaneous Wound Healing <ul><li>Figure 3-20 Phases of wound healing. </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>Skin wounds are classically described to heal by primary or secondary intention--- </li></ul><ul><li> based on the nature of the wound rather </li></ul><ul><li>than the healing process itself. </li></ul>
  89. 89. HEALING BY FIRST INTENTION (WOUNDS WITH OPPOSED EDGES)
  90. 90. <ul><li>Figure 3-21 Steps in wound healing by first intention ( left ) and second intention ( right ). Note large amounts of granulation tissue and wound contraction in healing by second intention. </li></ul>
  91. 91. <ul><li>By the end of the first month , the scar is made up of a cellular connective tissue devoid of inflammatory infiltrate, covered now by intact epidermis. </li></ul><ul><li>The dermal appendages that have been destroyed in the line of the incision are permanently lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile strength of the wound increases thereafter </li></ul>
  92. 92. HEALING BY SECOND INTENTION (WOUNDS WITH SEPARATED EDGES)
  93. 93. <ul><li>Figure 3-22 Healing of skin ulcers. A, Pressure ulcer of the skin, commonly found in diabetic patients. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  94. 94. <ul><li>Figure 3-22 The histology slides show B, a skin ulcer with a large gap between the edges of the lesion; </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  95. 95. <ul><li>Figure 3-22 C, a thin layer of epidermal reepithelialization and extensive granulation tissue formation in the dermis; </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  96. 96. <ul><li>Figure 3-22 D, continuing reepithelialization of the epidermis and wound contraction. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  97. 97. <ul><li>Figure 3-21 Steps in wound healing by first intention ( left ) and second intention ( right ). Note large amounts of granulation tissue and wound contraction in healing by second intention. </li></ul>
  98. 98. <ul><li>there is more extensive loss of cells and tissue, surface wounds that create large defects </li></ul><ul><li>Inevitably, large tissue defects generate a larger fibrin clot that fills the defect and more necrotic debris and exudate that must be removed. </li></ul><ul><li>the inflammatory reaction is more intense. </li></ul><ul><li>Much larger amounts of granulation tissue are formed. </li></ul>
  99. 99. <ul><li>the feature that most clearly differentiates primary from secondary healing is the phenomenon of wound contraction </li></ul><ul><li>The initial steps of wound contraction: </li></ul><ul><li>1. formation of a network of actin-containing fibroblasts at the edge of the wound. </li></ul><ul><li>2. action of myofibroblasts -altered fibroblasts that have the ultrastructural characteristics of smooth muscle cells. </li></ul>
  100. 100. LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WOUND HEALING
  101. 101. <ul><li>Systemic factors include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>2.Metabolic status </li></ul><ul><li>3.Circulatory status </li></ul><ul><li>4.Hormones </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>Local factors that influence healing include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Infection -the single most important cause of delay in healing </li></ul><ul><li>2.Mechanical factors </li></ul><ul><li>3.Foreign bodies </li></ul><ul><li>4.Size, location, and type of wound trauma. </li></ul>
  103. 103. COMPLICATIONS IN CUTANEOUS WOUND HEALING <ul><li>Inadequate formation of granulation tissue or assembly of a scar can lead to two types of complications: wound dehiscence and ulceration </li></ul><ul><li>accumulation of excessive amounts of collagen- a raised scar aka hypertrophic scar ; </li></ul><ul><li> -if the scar tissue grows beyond the boundaries of the original wound and does not regress, it is called a keloid </li></ul><ul><li>3. exaggeration of contraction- contracture and results in deformities </li></ul>
  104. 104. <ul><li>Figure 3-23 A, Keloid. Excess collagen deposition in the skin forming a raised scar known as keloid. B, Note the thick connective tissue deposition in the dermis. </li></ul>
  105. 105. <ul><li>http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl </li></ul>
  106. 106. Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolic Disease, and Shock
  107. 107. <ul><li>Normal fluid homeostasis encompasses maintenance of vessel wall integrity as well as intravascular pressure and osmolarity within certain physiologic ranges . </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in vascular volume, pressure, or protein content, or alterations in endothelial function, all affect the net movement of water across the vascular wall. </li></ul>
  108. 108. Edema
  109. 109. <ul><li>increased fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces. </li></ul>
  110. 110. <ul><li>Table 4-1. Pathophysiologic Categories of Edema </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Hydrostatic Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired venous return </li></ul><ul><li>Congestive heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Constrictive pericarditis   </li></ul><ul><li>Ascites (liver cirrhosis)   </li></ul><ul><li>Venous obstruction or compression </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombosis </li></ul><ul><li>External pressure (e.g., mass)  </li></ul><ul><li>Lower extremity inactivity with prolonged dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Arteriolar dilation   </li></ul><ul><li>Heat  Neurohumoral dysregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Plasma Osmotic Pressure (Hypoproteinemia) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein-losing glomerulopathies (nephrotic syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>Liver cirrhosis (ascites) </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Protein-losing gastroenteropathy </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic Obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammatory </li></ul><ul><li>Neoplastic </li></ul><ul><li>Postsurgical </li></ul><ul><li>Postirradiation </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive salt intake with renal insufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Increased tubular reabsorption of sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Renal hypoperfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Acute inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Angiogenesis </li></ul>
  111. 111. <ul><li>Figure 4-1 Factors affecting fluid balance across capillary walls . Capillary hydrostatic and osmotic forces are normally balanced so that there is no net loss or gain of fluid across the capillary bed. However, increased hydrostatic pressure or diminished plasma osmotic pressure leads to a net accumulation of extravascular fluid (edema) . As the interstitial fluid pressure increases, tissue lymphatics remove much of the excess volume, eventually returning it to the circulation via the thoracic duct. If the ability of the lymphatics to drain tissue is exceeded, persistent tissue edema results. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  112. 112. <ul><li>Figure 4-2 Sequence of events leading to systemic edema due to primary heart failure, primary renal failure, or reduced plasma osmotic pressure (as in malnutrition, diminished hepatic protein synthesis, or loss of protein owing to the nephrotic syndrome). ADH, antidiuretic hormone; GFR, glomerular filtration rate. </li></ul>
  113. 113. <ul><li>Anasarca - generalized edema </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent edema - a prominent feature of congestive heart failure, particularly of the right ventricle. </li></ul><ul><li>Edema as a result of renal dysfunction or nephrotic syndrome is generally more severe than cardiac edema and affects all parts of the body equally . </li></ul><ul><li>periorbital edema -is a characteristic finding in severe renal disease. </li></ul><ul><li>pitting edema -finger pressure over substantially edematous subcutaneous tissue displaces the interstitial fluid and leaves a finger-shaped depression </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary edema most typically seen in the setting of left ventricular failure </li></ul>
  114. 114. Hyperemia and Congestion <ul><li>both indicate a local increased volume of blood in a particular tissue. </li></ul>
  115. 115. <ul><li>Figure 4-3 Hyperemia versus congestion. In both cases there is an increased volume and pressure of blood in a given tissue with associated capillary dilation and a potential for fluid extravasation. In hyperemia, increased inflow leads to engorgement with oxygenated blood, resulting in erythema . In congestion, diminished outflow leads to a capillary bed swollen with deoxygenated venous blood and resulting in cyanosis . </li></ul>
  116. 116. <ul><li>Figure 4-4 Liver with chronic passive congestion and hemorrhagic necrosis. A , Central areas are red and slightly depressed compared with the surrounding tan viable parenchyma, forming the so-called &quot;nutmeg liver&quot; pattern. B , Centrilobular necrosis with degenerating hepatocytes, hemorrhage, and sparse acute inflammation. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
  117. 117. Hemorrhage
  118. 118. <ul><li>indicates extravasation of blood due to vessel rupture </li></ul>
  119. 119. <ul><li>hematoma -accumulation of blood within tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Petechiae -m inute 1- to 2-mm hemorrhages into skin, mucous membranes, or serosal surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>purpura -s lightly larger (≥3 mm) hemorrhages </li></ul><ul><li>ecchymoses -larger (>1 to 2 cm) subcutaneous hematomas (i.e., bruises) </li></ul><ul><li>hemothorax, hemopericardium, hemoperitoneum , or hemarthrosis (in joints) ---Large accumulations of blood in one or another of the body cavities </li></ul>
  120. 120. <ul><li>Figure 4-5 A , Punctate petechial hemorrhages of the colonic mucosa, seen here as a consequence of thrombocytopenia. B , Fatal intracerebral bleed. Even relatively inconsequential volumes of hemorrhage in a critical location, or into a closed space (such as the cranium), can have fatal outcomes. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  121. 121. Hemostasis and Thrombosis <ul><li>Normal hemostasis -result of a set of well-regulated processes that accomplish two important functions: </li></ul><ul><li>They maintain blood in a fluid, clot-free state in normal vessels; </li></ul><ul><li>They are poised to induce a rapid and localized hemostatic plug at a site of vascular injury. </li></ul>
  122. 122. <ul><li>Thrombosis - an inappropriate activation of normal hemostatic processes, such as the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in uninjured vasculature or thrombotic occlusion of a vessel after relatively minor injury. </li></ul><ul><li>The pathologic opposite to hemostasis </li></ul>
  123. 123. <ul><li>Both hemostasis and thrombosis are regulated by three general components-1.the vascular wall </li></ul><ul><li>2.platelets </li></ul><ul><li>3.the coagulation cascade. </li></ul>
  124. 124. NORMAL HEMOSTASIS
  125. 125. <ul><li>Figure 4-6 Diagrammatic representation of the normal hemostatic process. A , After vascular injury, local neurohumoral factors induce a transient vasoconstriction. </li></ul>
  126. 126. <ul><li>Figure 4-6 Diagrammatic representation of the normal hemostatic process. B , Platelets adhere to exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) via von Willebrand factor (vWF) and are activated, undergoing a shape change and granule release; released adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) lead to further platelet aggregation to form the primary hemostatic plug. </li></ul>
  127. 127. <ul><li>Figure 4-6 Diagrammatic representation of the normal hemostatic process. C , Local activation of the coagulation cascade (involving tissue factor and platelet phospholipids) results in fibrin polymerization, &quot;cementing&quot; the platelets into a definitive secondary hemostatic plug. </li></ul>
  128. 128. <ul><li>Figure 4-6 Diagrammatic representation of the normal hemostatic process. D , Counter-regulatory mechanisms, such as release of tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) (fibrinolytic) and thrombomodulin (interfering with the coagulation cascade), limit the hemostatic process to the site of injury. </li></ul>
  129. 129. <ul><li>The balance between endothelial antithrombotic and prothrombotic activities critically determines whether thrombus formation, propagation, or dissolution occurs </li></ul>
  130. 130. THROMBOSIS http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  131. 131. <ul><li>Three primary influences predispose to thrombus formation, the so-called Virchow triad : </li></ul><ul><li>endothelial injury </li></ul><ul><li>stasis or turbulence of blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>blood hypercoagulability </li></ul>
  132. 132. <ul><li>Figure 4-13 Virchow triad in thrombosis. Endothelial integrity is the single most important factor. Note that injury to endothelial cells can affect local blood flow and/or coagulability; abnormal blood flow (stasis or turbulence) can, in turn, cause endothelial injury. The elements of the triad may act independently or may combine to cause thrombus formation. </li></ul>
  133. 133. <ul><li>Alterations in Normal Blood Flow. i.e. Turbulence contributes to arterial and cardiac thrombosis by causing endothelial injury or dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>stasis is a major factor in the development of venous thrombi </li></ul>
  134. 134. <ul><li>Thrombi may develop anywhere in the cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>An area of attachment to the underlying vessel or heart wall, frequently firmest at the point of origin, is characteristic of all thromboses. </li></ul>
  135. 135. <ul><li>The propagating tail may not be well attached and, particularly in veins, is prone to fragmentation, creating an embolus . </li></ul><ul><li>mural thrombi - arterial thrombi that arise in heart chambers or in the aortic lumen, that usually adhere to the wall of the underlying structure </li></ul>
  136. 136. <ul><li>Figure 4-14 Mural thrombi. A , Thrombus in the left and right ventricular apices, overlying a white fibrous scar. B , Laminated thrombus in a dilated abdominal aortic aneurysm. </li></ul>
  137. 137. <ul><li>Fate of the Thrombus. </li></ul><ul><li>1.Propagation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Embolization. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Dissolution. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Organization and recanalization. </li></ul>
  138. 138. <ul><li>Figure 4-15 Potential outcomes of venous thrombosis. </li></ul>
  139. 139. <ul><li>Figure 4-16 Low-power view of a thrombosed artery. A , H&E-stained section. B , Stain for elastic tissue. The original lumen is delineated by the internal elastic lamina (arrows) and is totally filled with organized thrombus, now punctuated by a number of small recanalized channels. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  140. 140. Embolism <ul><li>An embolus is a detached intravascular solid, liquid, or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin. </li></ul><ul><li>emboli lodge in vessels too small to permit further passage, resulting in partial or complete vascular occlusion </li></ul>
  141. 141. PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM <ul><li>95% of instances, venous emboli originate from deep leg vein thrombi </li></ul>
  142. 142. <ul><li>Figure 4-17 Large embolus derived from a lower extremity deep venous thrombosis and now impacted in a pulmonary artery branch. </li></ul>                                                                                                                                             
  143. 143. SYSTEMIC THROMBOEMBOLISM <ul><li>emboli traveling within the arterial circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Most (80%) arise from intracardiac mural thrombi, </li></ul><ul><li>two thirds of which are associated with left ventricular wall infarcts </li></ul><ul><li>The major sites for arteriolar embolization are: </li></ul><ul><li>1.lower extremities (75%) </li></ul><ul><li>2.brain (10% </li></ul>
  144. 144. FAT EMBOLISM <ul><li>Microscopic fat globules may be found in the circulation after fractures of long bones (which have fatty marrow) or, rarely, in the setting of soft tissue trauma and burns. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat embolism syndrome is characterized by pulmonary insufficiency, neurologic symptoms, anemia, and thrombocytopenia . </li></ul>
  145. 145. <ul><li>Figure 4-18 Bone marrow embolus in the pulmonary circulation. The cleared vacuoles represent marrow fat that is now impacted in a distal vessel along with the cellular hematopoietic precursors. </li></ul>
  146. 146. AIR EMBOLISM <ul><li>Gas bubbles within the circulation can obstruct vascular flow </li></ul><ul><li>enter the circulation during obstetric procedures or as a consequence of chest wall injury. </li></ul><ul><li>in excess of 100 cc is required to have a clinical effect </li></ul>
  147. 147. <ul><li>decompression sickness , occurs when individuals are exposed to sudden changes in atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Scuba and deep sea divers </li></ul><ul><li>-responsible for the painful condition </li></ul><ul><li>called the bends </li></ul><ul><li> -focal atelectasis or emphysema may appear, leading to respiratory distress- chokes. </li></ul><ul><li> -more chronic form of decompression sickness - caisson disease (persistence of gas emboli in the skeletal system ) </li></ul>
  148. 148. AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM <ul><li>grave but fortunately uncommon complication of labor and the immediate postpartum period </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by sudden severe dyspnea, cyanosis, and hypotensive shock, followed by seizures and coma. </li></ul><ul><li>underlying cause is the infusion of amniotic fluid or fetal tissue into the maternal circulation via a tear in the placental membranes or rupture of uterine veins. </li></ul>
  149. 149. <ul><li>The classic findings are therefore the presence in the pulmonary microcirculation of: </li></ul><ul><li>squamous cells shed from fetal skin, </li></ul><ul><li>lanugo hair, </li></ul><ul><li>fat from vernix caseosa, </li></ul><ul><li>mucin derived from the fetal respiratory or gastrointestinal tract. </li></ul>
  150. 150. Infarction
  151. 151. <ul><li>An infarct is an area of ischemic necrosis caused by occlusion of either the arterial supply or the venous drainage in a particular tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 99% of all infarcts result from thrombotic or embolic events, and almost all result from arterial occlusion. </li></ul>
  152. 152. <ul><li>Infarcts are classified on the basis of their color (reflecting the amount of hemorrhage) and the presence or absence of microbial infection </li></ul>
  153. 153. <ul><li>Red (hemorrhagic) infarcts occur </li></ul><ul><li>with venous occlusions (such as in ovarian torsion); </li></ul><ul><li>in loose tissues (such as lung) </li></ul><ul><li>in tissues with dual circulations (e.g., lung and small intestine) </li></ul><ul><li>in tissues that were previously congested because of sluggish venous outflow </li></ul><ul><li>when flow is re-established to a site of previous arterial occlusion and necrosis (e.g., following fragmentation of an occlusive embolus or angioplasty of a thrombotic lesion </li></ul>
  154. 154. <ul><li>White (anemic) infarcts occur </li></ul><ul><li>with arterial occlusions in solid organs with end-arterial circulation (such as heart, spleen, and kidney) </li></ul><ul><li>Solid tissues </li></ul>
  155. 155. <ul><li>Figure 4-19 Examples of infarcts. A , Hemorrhagic, roughly wedge-shaped pulmonary infarct. B , Sharply demarcated white infarct in the spleen. </li></ul>
  156. 156. <ul><li>The dominant histologic characteristic of infarction is ischemic coagulative necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>most infarcts are ultimately replaced by scar tissue . </li></ul><ul><li>The brain is an exception to these generalizations; ischemic injury in the central nervous system results in liquefactive necrosis </li></ul>
  157. 157. <ul><li>Figure 4-20 Remote kidney infarct, now replaced by a large fibrotic cortical scar. </li></ul>
  158. 158. <ul><li>Septic infarctions may develop when embolization occurs by fragmentation of a bacterial vegetation from a heart valve or when microbes seed an area of necrotic tissue. </li></ul>
  159. 159. Clinical Correlations: Factors That Influence Development of an Infarct. <ul><li>The consequences of a vascular occlusion can range from no or minimal effect, all the way up to death of a tissue or even the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>The major determinants include: </li></ul><ul><li>the nature of the vascular supply ; </li></ul><ul><li>the rate of development of the occlusion ; </li></ul><ul><li>the vulnerability of a given tissue to hypoxia ; </li></ul><ul><li>the blood oxygen content. </li></ul>
  160. 160. Shock
  161. 161. <ul><li>Shock, or cardiovascular collapse , is the final common pathway for a number of potentially lethal clinical events, including severe hemorrhage, extensive trauma or burns, large myocardial infarction, massive pulmonary embolism, and microbial sepsis </li></ul>
  162. 162. <ul><li>gives rise to systemic hypoperfusion caused by reduction in: </li></ul><ul><li>1.cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>2.the effective circulating blood volume. </li></ul><ul><li>The end results are hypotension , followed by impaired tissue perfusion and cellular hypoxia. </li></ul>
  163. 163. <ul><li>Table 4-3. Three Major Types of Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Clinical Examples Principal Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiogenic   </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial infarction Failure of myocardial pump </li></ul><ul><li>owing to intrinsic myocardial </li></ul><ul><li>damage, extrinsic pressure, </li></ul><ul><li>or obstruction to outflow  </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricular rupture  </li></ul><ul><li>  Arrhythmia   </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac tamponade   </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary embolism  </li></ul><ul><li>Hypovolemic   </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhage Inadequate blood or plasma volume  </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid loss, e.g., vomiting, </li></ul><ul><li>diarrhea, burns, or trauma  </li></ul><ul><li>Septic   </li></ul><ul><li>Overwhelming microbial Peripheral vasodilation and pooling of </li></ul><ul><li>infections blood; endothelial activation/injury; </li></ul><ul><li>leukocyte-induced damage; disseminated </li></ul><ul><li>intravascular coagulation; activation of cytokine </li></ul><ul><li>cascades  </li></ul><ul><li>Endotoxic shock   </li></ul><ul><li>Gram-positive septicemia   </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal sepsis  </li></ul><ul><li>  Superantigens  </li></ul>
  164. 164. <ul><li>Less commonly: </li></ul><ul><li>neurogenic shock -in the setting of anesthetic accident or spinal cord injury , owing to loss of vascular tone and peripheral pooling of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphylactic shock , initiated by a generalized IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response, is associated with systemic vasodilation and increased vascular permeability </li></ul>
  165. 165. PATHOGENESIS OF SEPTIC SHOCK <ul><li>25% to 50% mortality rate, ranks first among the causes of mortality in intensive care units </li></ul><ul><li>results from spread and expansion of an initially localized infection (e.g., abscess, peritonitis, pneumonia) into the bloodstream. </li></ul>
  166. 166. <ul><li>Most cases of septic shock (approximately 70%) are caused by endotoxin-producing gram-negative bacilli , hence the term endotoxic shock . </li></ul><ul><li>Endotoxins are bacterial wall lipopolysaccharides ( LPSs ) that are released when the cell walls are degraded (e.g., in an inflammatory response </li></ul>
  167. 167. <ul><li>Figure 4-21 Cytokine cascade in sepsis . After release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from invading gram-negative microorganisms, there are successive waves of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 secretion. </li></ul>
  168. 168. <ul><li>Figure 4-22 Effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and secondarily induced effector molecules. LPS initiates the cytokine cascade described in Figure 4-21 ; in addition, LPS and the various factors can directly stimulate downstream cytokine production, as indicated. Secondary effectors that become important include nitric oxide (NO) and platelet-activating factor (PAF). At low levels, only local inflammatory effects are seen. With moderate levels, more systemic events occur in addition to the local vascular effects. At high concentrations, the syndrome of septic shock is seen. DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulation; ARDS, adult respiratory distress syndrome. </li></ul>
  169. 169. <ul><li>Finally, at higher levels of LPS, the syndrome of septic shock supervenes </li></ul><ul><li>the same cytokines and secondary mediators, now at high levels, result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic vasodilation (hypotension) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diminished myocardial contractility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread endothelial injury and activation, causing systemic leukocyte adhesion and pulmonary alveolar capillary damage ( acute respiratory distress syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation of the coagulation system, culminating in DIC </li></ul></ul>
  170. 170. <ul><li>hypoperfusion resulting from the combined effects of widespread vasodilation, myocardial pump failure, and DIC induces multiorgan system failure affecting the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system </li></ul>
  171. 171. Clinical Course <ul><li>The clinical manifestations depend on the precipitating insult. </li></ul><ul><li>In hypovolemic and cardiogenic shock , the patient presents with hypotension; a weak, rapid pulse; tachypnea; and cool, clammy, cyanotic skin. </li></ul><ul><li>In septic shock , the skin may initially be warm and flushed because of peripheral vasodilation. </li></ul>
  172. 172. <ul><li>END </li></ul>
  173. 173. NEOPLASIA http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  174. 174. Definitions <ul><li>Neoplasia literally means the process of &quot;new growth,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Oncology (Greek oncos = tumor) is the study of tumors or neoplasms. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer is the common term for all malignant tumors. </li></ul>
  175. 175. <ul><li>“ A neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change.&quot; </li></ul>
  176. 176. Nomenclature <ul><li>All tumors, benign and malignant, have two basic components: </li></ul><ul><li>proliferating neoplastic cells that constitute their parenchyma </li></ul><ul><li>supportive stroma made up of connective tissue and blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>The nomenclature of tumors is, however, based on the parenchymal component. </li></ul>
  177. 177. <ul><li>Benign Tumors </li></ul><ul><li>-In general, benign tumors are designated by attaching the suffix - oma to the cell of origin. Tumors of mesenchymal cells generally follow this rule. i.e. fibroma, chondroma, osteoma. </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  178. 178. <ul><li>nomenclature of benign epithelial tumors is more complex. They are variously classified based on: </li></ul><ul><li>their cells of origin </li></ul><ul><li>on microscopic architecture </li></ul><ul><li>on their macroscopic patterns. </li></ul>
  179. 179. <ul><li>Figure 7-1 Papilloma of the colon with finger-like projections into the lumen. </li></ul>
  180. 180. <ul><li>Figure 7-2 Colonic polyp. A, This benign glandular tumor (adenoma) is projecting into the colonic lumen and is attached to the mucosa by a distinct stalk. B, Gross appearance of several colonic polyps. </li></ul>
  181. 181. <ul><li>Malignant Tumors </li></ul><ul><li>- Malignant tumors arising in mesenchymal tissue are usually called sarcomas (Greek sar = fleshy) because they have little connective tissue stroma and so are fleshy e.g., fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  182. 182. <ul><li>Malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin, derived from any of the three germ layers, are called carcinomas . </li></ul>
  183. 183. <ul><li>divergent differentiation of a single line of parenchymal cells into another tissue creates what are called mixed tumors . The best example of this is the mixed tumor of salivary gland origin. </li></ul>
  184. 184. <ul><li>Figure 7-3 This mixed tumor of the parotid gland contains epithelial cells forming ducts and myxoid stroma that resembles cartilage. (Courtesy of Dr. Trace Worrell, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX.) </li></ul>
  185. 185. <ul><li>The great majority of neoplasms, even mixed tumors, are composed of cells representative of a single germ layer. Teratomas , in contrast, are made up of a variety of parenchymal cell types representative of more than one germ layer, usually all three. </li></ul>
  186. 186. <ul><li>Figure 7-4 A, Gross appearance of an opened cystic teratoma of the ovary. Note the presence of hair, sebaceous material, and tooth. </li></ul>
  187. 187. <ul><li>B, A microscopic view of a similar tumor shows skin, sebaceous glands, fat cells, and a tract of neural tissue ( arrow ). </li></ul>
  188. 188. <ul><li>choristoma - an ectopic rest of normal tissue </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. a rest of adrenal cells under the kidney capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Hamartoma - aberrant differentiation may produce a mass of disorganized but mature specialized cells or tissue indigenous to the particular site. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. a hamartoma in the lung may contain islands of cartilage, blood vessels, bronchial-type structures, and lymphoid tissue. </li></ul>
  189. 189. Biology of Tumor Growth: Benign and Malignant Neoplasms
  190. 190. <ul><li>The natural history of most malignant tumors can be divided into four phases: </li></ul><ul><li>malignant change in the target cell, referred to as transformation ; </li></ul><ul><li>growth of the transformed cells; </li></ul><ul><li>local invasion ; </li></ul><ul><li>distant metastases . </li></ul>
  191. 191. DIFFERENTIATION AND ANAPLASIA <ul><li>Differentiation -refers to the extent to which neoplastic cells resemble comparable normal cells, both morphologically and functionally </li></ul><ul><li>anaplasia -lack of differentiation </li></ul>
  192. 192. <ul><li>Well-differentiated tumors are composed of cells resembling the mature normal cells of the tissue of origin of the neoplasm </li></ul>
  193. 193. <ul><li>Figure 7-5 Leiomyoma of the uterus. This benign, well-differentiated tumor contains interlacing bundles of neoplastic smooth muscle cells that are virtually identical in appearance to normal smooth muscle cells in the myometrium. </li></ul>
  194. 194. <ul><li>In general, benign tumors are well differentiated </li></ul>
  195. 195. <ul><li>Figure 7-6 Benign tumor (adenoma) of the thyroid. Note the normal-looking (well-differentiated), colloid-filled thyroid follicles. </li></ul>
  196. 196. <ul><li>Malignant neoplasms, in contrast, range from well differentiated to undifferentiated. Malignant neoplasms composed of undifferentiated cells are said to be anaplastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of differentiation, or anaplasia , is considered a hallmark of malignant transformation. </li></ul>
  197. 197. <ul><li>Figure 7-7 Malignant tumor (adenocarcinoma) of the colon. Note that compared with the well-formed and normal-looking glands characteristic of a benign tumor (see Fig. 7-6), the cancerous glands are irregular in shape and size and do not resemble the normal colonic glands. This tumor is considered differentiated because gland formation can be seen. The malignant glands have invaded the muscular layer of the colon. </li></ul>
  198. 198. Lack of differentiation, or anaplasia, is marked by a number of morphologic changes: <ul><li>Pleomorphism. Both the cells and the nuclei characteristically display pleomorphism -variation in size and shape ( Fig. 7-8 ). </li></ul>
  199. 199. <ul><li>Figure 7-8 Anaplastic tumor of the skeletal muscle (rhabdomyosarcoma). Note the marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism, hyperchromatic nuclei, and tumor giant cells. </li></ul>
  200. 200. <ul><li>Abnormal nuclear morphology. The nuclei contain an abundance of DNA and are extremely dark staining ( hyperchromatic ). The nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio may approach 1:1 instead of the normal 1:4 or 1:6. The chromatin is often coarsely clumped and distributed along the nuclear membrane. Large nucleoli are usually present. </li></ul>
  201. 201. <ul><li>Mitoses. Large numbers of mitoses, reflecting the higher proliferative activity of the parenchymal cells. More important as a morphologic feature of malignant neoplasia are atypical, bizarre mitotic figures , sometimes producing tripolar, quadripolar, or multipolar spindles </li></ul>
  202. 202. <ul><li>Figure 7-9 Anaplastic tumor showing cellular and nuclear variation in size and shape. The prominent cell in the center field has an abnormal tripolar spindle. </li></ul>
  203. 203. <ul><li>Loss of polarity. The orientation of anaplastic cells is markedly disturbed (i.e., they lose normal polarity). </li></ul><ul><li>-grow in an anarchic, disorganized fashion. </li></ul>
  204. 204. <ul><li>Other changes. Formation of tumor giant cells. </li></ul>
  205. 205. <ul><li>Figure 7-10 Well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The tumor cells are strikingly similar to normal squamous epithelial cells, with intercellular bridges and nests of keratin pearls ( arrow ). </li></ul>
  206. 206. <ul><li>dysplasia, literally means disordered growth. Encountered principally in epithelia, and it is characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>loss in the uniformity of the individual cells </li></ul><ul><li>loss in their architectural orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>exhibit pleomorphism </li></ul><ul><li>contain hyperchromatic nuclei. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitotic figures are more abundant </li></ul>
  207. 207. <ul><li>When dysplastic changes are marked and involve the entire thickness of the epithelium, but the lesion remains confined to the normal tissue, it is considered a preinvasive neoplasm and is referred to as carcinoma in situ ( Fig. 7-11 ). Once the tumor cells move beyond the normal confines, the tumor is said to be invasive . </li></ul>
  208. 208. <ul><li>Figure 7-11 A, Carcinoma in situ. This low-power view shows that the entire thickness of the epithelium is replaced by atypical dysplastic cells. There is no orderly differentiation of squamous cells. The basement membrane is intact and there is no tumor in the subepithelial stroma. B, A high-power view of another region shows failure of normal differentiation, marked nuclear and cellular pleomorphism, and numerous mitotic figures extending toward the surface. The basement membrane ( below ) is not seen in this section. </li></ul>
  209. 209. RATES OF GROWTH <ul><li>How long does it take to produce a clinically overt tumor mass? The original transformed cell (approximately 10 μm in diameter) must undergo at least 30 population doublings to produce 109 cells (weighing approximately 1 gm ), which is the smallest clinically detectable mass. In contrast, only 10 further doubling cycles are required to produce a tumor containing 1012 cells (weighing approximately 1 kg ), which is usually the maximal size compatible with life </li></ul>
  210. 210. <ul><li>Figure 7-12 Biology of tumor growth. The left panel depicts minimal estimates of tumor cell doublings that precede the formation of a clinically detectable tumor mass. It is evident that by the time a solid tumor is detected, it has already completed a major portion of its life cycle as measured by cell doublings. The right panel illustrates clonal evolution of tumors and generation of tumor cell heterogeneity. New subclones arise from the descendants of the original transformed cell, and with progressive growth the tumor mass becomes enriched for those variants that are more adept at evading host defenses and are likely to be more aggressive. </li></ul>
  211. 211. <ul><li>The rate of growth of a tumor is determined by three main factors: </li></ul><ul><li>1.The doubling time of tumor cells </li></ul><ul><li>2. The fraction of tumor cells that are in the replicative pool </li></ul><ul><li>3.The rate at which cells are shed and lost in the growing lesion. </li></ul>
  212. 212. <ul><li>Figure 7-13 Schematic representation of tumor growth. As the cell population expands, a progressively higher percentage of tumor cells leaves the replicative pool by reversion to G0, differentiation, and death. </li></ul>
  213. 213. <ul><li>the progressive growth of tumors and the rate at which they grow are determined by an excess of cell production over cell loss . </li></ul>
  214. 214. <ul><li>Factors that may affect their growth: </li></ul><ul><li>1.hormonal stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>2.adequacy of blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>3.unknown influences </li></ul>
  215. 215. CANCER STEM CELLS AND CANCER CELL LINEAGES <ul><li>A clinically detectable tumor contains a heterogeneous population of cells, which originated from the clonal growth of the progeny of a single cell- stem cells </li></ul><ul><li>– initiate and sustain the tumor. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. T-IC(tumor initiating cells) </li></ul>
  216. 216. LOCAL INVASION <ul><li>Nearly all benign tumors: </li></ul><ul><li>grow as cohesive expansile masses that remain localized to their site of origin </li></ul><ul><li>do not have the capacity to infiltrate, invade, or metastasize to distant sites </li></ul><ul><li>They grow and expand slowly, they usually develop a rim of compressed connective tissue, called a fibrous capsule, which separates them from the host tissue. </li></ul>
  217. 217. <ul><li>Figure 7-14 Fibroadenoma of the breast. The tan-colored, encapsulated small tumor is sharply demarcated from the whiter breast tissue. </li></ul>
  218. 218. <ul><li>Figure 7-15 Microscopic view of fibroadenoma of the breast seen in Figure 7-14 . The fibrous capsule ( right ) delimits the tumor from the surrounding tissue. </li></ul>
  219. 219. <ul><li>The growth of cancers is accompanied by: </li></ul><ul><li>progressive infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>destruction of the surrounding tissue </li></ul><ul><li>poorly demarcated from the surrounding normal tissue </li></ul><ul><li>a well-defined cleavage plane is lacking </li></ul>
  220. 220. <ul><li>Figure 7-16 Cut section of an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The lesion is retracted, infiltrating the surrounding breast substance, and would be stony hard on palpation. </li></ul>
  221. 222. <ul><li>Figure 7-17 The microscopic view of the breast carcinoma seen in Figure 7-16 illustrates the invasion of breast stroma and fat by nests and cords of tumor cells (compare with fibroadenoma shown in Fig. 7-15 ). The absence of a well-defined capsule should be noted. </li></ul>
  222. 224. <ul><li>Next to the development of metastases , invasiveness is the most reliable feature that differentiates malignant from benign tumors. </li></ul>
  223. 225. METASTASIS <ul><li>are tumor implants discontinuous with the primary tumor. </li></ul><ul><li>unequivocally marks a tumor as malignant because benign neoplasms do not metastasize. </li></ul><ul><li>The invasiveness of cancers permits them to penetrate into blood vessels, lymphatics, and body cavities, providing the opportunity for spread. </li></ul>
  224. 226. <ul><li>With few exceptions, all cancers can metastasize. The major exceptions are: </li></ul><ul><li>most malignant neoplasms of the glial cells in the central nervous system, called gliomas </li></ul><ul><li>basal cell carcinomas of the skin. </li></ul>
  225. 227. <ul><li>In general, the more aggressive , the more rapidly growing , and the larger the primary neoplasm, the greater the likelihood that it will metastasize or already has metastasized. </li></ul>
  226. 228. <ul><li>Approximately 30% of newly diagnosed patients with solid tumors (excluding skin cancers other than melanomas) present with metastases. </li></ul>
  227. 229. <ul><li>Pathways of Spread </li></ul><ul><li>-Dissemination of cancers may occur </li></ul><ul><li>through one of three pathways: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Seeding of Body Cavities and Surfaces. May occur whenever a malignant neoplasm penetrates into a natural &quot;open field.&quot; Most often involved is the peritoneal cavity ( Fig. 7-18 ), but any other cavity-pleural, pericardial, subarachnoid, and joint space-may be affected. </li></ul>
  228. 230. <ul><li>Figure 7-18 Colon carcinoma invading pericolonic adipose tissue. </li></ul>
  229. 231. <ul><li>2. Lymphatic Spread. Transport through lymphatics is the most common pathway for the initial dissemination of carcinomas ( Fig. 7-19 ), and sarcomas may also use this route. The pattern of lymph node involvement follows the natural routes of lymphatic drainage. </li></ul>
  230. 232. <ul><li>Figure 7-19 Axillary lymph node with metastatic breast carcinoma. The subcapsular sinus ( top ) is distended with tumor cells. Nests of tumor cells have also invaded the subcapsular cortex. </li></ul>
  231. 233. <ul><li>3. Hematogenous Spread. Hematogenous spread is typical of sarcomas but is also seen with carcinomas. Arteries, with their thicker walls, are less readily penetrated than are veins. </li></ul><ul><li>-Understandably the liver and lungs are most frequently involved secondarily in such hematogenous dissemination </li></ul>
  232. 234. <ul><li>Figure 7-20 A liver studded with metastatic cancer. </li></ul>
  233. 235. <ul><li>Figure 7-21 Microscopic view of liver metastasis. A pancreatic adenocarcinoma has formed a metastatic nodule in the liver. </li></ul>
  234. 236. <ul><li>Certain cancers have a propensity for invasion of veins. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Renal cell carcinoma, </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatocellular carcinomas </li></ul><ul><li>- Histologic evidence of penetration of small vessels at the site of the primary neoplasm is obviously an ominous feature. </li></ul>
  235. 237. <ul><li>The distinguishing features of benign and malignant tumors discussed in this overview are summarized in Table 7-2 (see p. 281) and Figure 7-22 . </li></ul>
  236. 238. <ul><li>Figure 7-22 Comparison between a benign tumor of the myometrium (leiomyoma) and a malignant tumor of similar origin (leiomyosarcoma). </li></ul>
  237. 239. Epidemiology <ul><li>Study of cancer patterns in populations, can contribute substantially to knowledge about the origins of cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>major insights into the cause of cancer can be obtained by epidemiologic studies that relate particular environmental, hereditary, and cultural influences to the occurrence of malignant neoplasms. </li></ul>
  238. 240. <ul><li>Figure 7-23 Cancer incidence and mortality by site and sex. Excludes basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas, except urinary bladder. (Adapted from Jemal A, et al: Cancer statistics, 2003. CA Cancer J Clin 53:5, 2003.) </li></ul>
  239. 241. <ul><li>Figure 7-24 Age-adjusted cancer death rates for selected sites in the United States, adjusted for the 2000 U.S. population. (Adapted from Jemal A, et al: Cancer statistics, 2003. CA Cancer J Clin 53:5, 2003.) </li></ul>
  240. 242. <ul><li>overall age-adjusted cancer death rate has significantly increased in men, whereas it has fallen slightly in women. </li></ul><ul><li>Striking is the alarming increase in deaths from carcinoma of the lung in both sexes . </li></ul>
  241. 243. GEOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS <ul><li>death rate for stomach carcinoma in both men and women is seven to eight times higher in Japan than in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>the death rate from carcinoma of the lung is slightly more than twice as great in the United States as in Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin cancer deaths, largely caused by melanomas, are six times more frequent in New Zealand than in Iceland, which is probably attributable to differences in sun exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>most of these geographic differences are the consequence of environmental influences. </li></ul>
  242. 244. <ul><li>There is no paucity of environmental factors: they are found in the ambient environment, in the workplace, in food, and in personal practices </li></ul><ul><li>examples of occupational hazards, and many others are listed in Table 7-3 </li></ul><ul><li>most overweight individuals in the U.S. population have a 52% (men) and 62% (women) higher death rate from cancer than do their slimmer counterparts. </li></ul>
  243. 245. <ul><li>Alcohol abuse alone increases the risk of carcinomas of the oropharynx (excluding lip), larynx, and esophagus and, through the intermediation of alcoholic cirrhosis, carcinoma of the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking, particularly of cigarettes, has been implicated in cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, and bladder -single most important environmental factor contributing to premature death in the United States </li></ul>
  244. 246. <ul><li>It begins to appear that almost everything one does to gain a livelihood or for pleasure is fattening, immoral, illegal, or, even worse, oncogenic. </li></ul>
  245. 247. AGE <ul><li>Most carcinomas occur in the later years of life (≥ 55 years). Cancer is the main cause of death among women aged 40 to 79 and among men aged 60 to 79. </li></ul><ul><li>Please see Tables 7-4 and 7-5 pp.286-287 </li></ul>
  246. 248. GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO CANCER <ul><li>&quot;My mother and father both died of cancer. Does that mean I am doomed to get it?&quot; </li></ul>
  247. 249. <ul><li>Less than 10% of cancer patients have inherited mutations that predispose to cancer, and the frequency is even lower (around 0.1%) for certain types of tumors. </li></ul>
  248. 250. <ul><li>Genetic predisposition to cancer can be divided into three categories ( Table 7-6 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Autosomal Dominant Inherited Cancer Syndromes. </li></ul><ul><li>Defective DNA Repair Syndromes. </li></ul><ul><li>Familial Cancers. </li></ul>
  249. 251. <ul><li>Autosomal Dominant Inherited Cancer Syndromes- include several well-defined cancers in which inheritance of a single mutant gene greatly increases the risk of developing a tumor. </li></ul><ul><li>-The inherited mutation is usually a point mutation occurring in a single allele of a tumor suppressor gene. </li></ul><ul><li>-Childhood retinoblastoma is the most striking example </li></ul>
  250. 252. <ul><li>Defective DNA Repair Syndromes </li></ul><ul><li>- characterized by defects in DNA repair and resultant DNA instability. </li></ul><ul><li>- These conditions generally have an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. </li></ul>
  251. 253. <ul><li>Familial Cancers- occur at higher frequency in certain families without a clearly defined pattern of transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>- Features that characterize familial cancers include early age at onset, tumors arising in two or more close relatives of the index case, and sometimes, multiple or bilateral tumors . </li></ul>
  252. 254. NONHEREDITARY PREDISPOSING CONDITIONS <ul><li>The only certain way of avoiding cancer is not to be born; to live is to incur the risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Because cell replication is involved in neoplastic transformation, regenerative, hyperplastic, and dysplastic proliferations are fertile soil for the origin of a malignant tumor. </li></ul>
  253. 255. <ul><li>Chronic Inflammation and Cancer- -- </li></ul><ul><li>- Virchow proposed that cancer develops at sites of chronic inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>- Chronic inflammatory reactions may result in the production of cytokines, which stimulate the growth of transformed cells. </li></ul><ul><li>- exemplified by the increased risk of cancer development in patients affected by a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. </li></ul>
  254. 256. <ul><li>2. Precancerous Conditions- the chronic atrophic gastritis of pernicious anemia, solar keratosis of the skin, chronic ulcerative colitis, and leukoplakia of the oral cavity, vulva, and penis- have such a well-defined association with cancer </li></ul><ul><li>-Is there not a risk with all benign neoplasms? Although some risk may be inherent, a large cumulative experience indicates that most benign neoplasms do not become cancerous. </li></ul>
  255. 257. Carcinogenic Agents and Their Cellular Interactions <ul><li>A large number of agents cause genetic damage and induce neoplastic transformation of cells. They include (1) chemical carcinogens, (2) radiant energy, and (3) oncogenic viruses and some other microbes. </li></ul>
  256. 258. CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS <ul><li>we owe largely to Sir Percival Pott our awareness of the potential carcinogenicity of chemical agents. </li></ul><ul><li>increased incidence of scrotal skin cancer in chimney sweeps to chronic exposure to soot. </li></ul>
  257. 259. Steps Involved in Chemical Carcinogenesis <ul><li>the stages of initiation and progression during cancer development have been described </li></ul><ul><li>the classic experiments that allowed the distinction between initiation and promotion were performed on mouse skin and are outlined in Figure 7-48 . </li></ul>
  258. 260. <ul><li>Figure 7-48 Experiments demonstrating the initiation and promotion phases of carcinogenesis in mice. Group 2: application of promoter repeated at twice-weekly intervals for several months. Group 3: application of promoter delayed for several months and then applied twice weekly. Group 6: promoter applied at monthly intervals. </li></ul>
  259. 261. <ul><li>The following concepts relating to the initiation-promotion sequence: </li></ul><ul><li>-Initiation results from exposure of cells to a sufficient dose of a carcinogenic agent (initiator); an initiated cell is altered, making it potentially capable of giving rise to a tumor (groups 2 and 3). Initiation alone, however, is not sufficient for tumor formation </li></ul><ul><li>(group 1) </li></ul><ul><li>- Initiation causes permanent DNA damage (mutations). It is therefore rapid and irreversible and has &quot;memory.&quot; This is illustrated by group 3, in which tumors were produced even if the application of the promoting agent was delayed for several months after a single application of the initiator. </li></ul><ul><li>- Promoters can induce tumors in initiated cells, but they are nontumorigenic by themselves (group 5). Furthermore, tumors do not result when the promoting agent is applied before, rather than after, the initiating agent (group 4). </li></ul><ul><li>-that the effects of promoters are reversible is further documented in group 6, in which tumors failed to develop in initiated cells if the time between multiple applications of the promoter was sufficiently extended. </li></ul>
  260. 262. <ul><li>Figure 7-49 General schema of events in chemical carcinogenesis. Note that promoters cause clonal expansion of the initiated cell, thus producing a preneoplastic clone. Further proliferation induced by the promoter or other factors causes accumulation of additional mutations and emergence of a malignant tumor. </li></ul>
  261. 263. Initiation of Chemical Carcinogenesis <ul><li>They fall into one of two categories: (1) direct-acting compounds , which do not require chemical transformation for their carcinogenicity, and (2) indirect-acting compounds or procarcinogens , which require metabolic conversion in vivo to produce ultimate carcinogens capable of transforming cells. ( Table 7-11 ). </li></ul>
  262. 264. <ul><li>have one property in common: They are highly reactive electrophiles (have electron-deficient atoms) that can react with nucleophilic (electron-rich) sites in the cell. </li></ul>
  263. 265. <ul><li>Metabolic Activation of Carcinogens- most chemical carcinogens require metabolic activation for conversion into ultimate carcinogens ( Fig. 7-49 ). </li></ul><ul><li>-the carcinogenic potency of a chemical is determined by the balance between metabolic activation and inactivation reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>-Most of the known carcinogens are metabolized by cytochrome P-450-dependent mono-oxygenases. </li></ul>
  264. 266. <ul><li>Molecular Targets of Chemical Carcinogens -malignant transformation results from mutations that affect oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, genes that regulate apoptosis, and genes involved in DNA repair </li></ul><ul><li>-the majority of initiating chemicals are mutagenic- investigated, most commonly using the Ames test- uses the ability of a chemical to induce mutations in the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. </li></ul>
  265. 267. <ul><li>most but not all chemicals that are mutagenic in vitro are carcinogenic in vivo </li></ul><ul><li>That DNA is the primary target for chemical carcinogens seems fairly well established </li></ul><ul><li>It should be emphasized that carcinogen-induced changes in DNA do not necessarily lead to initiation because most types of DNA damage can be repaired by cellular enzymes. </li></ul>
  266. 268. <ul><li>Initiated Cell- unrepaired alterations in the DNA are essential first steps in the process of initiation. For the change to be heritable, the damaged DNA template must be replicated. Thus, for initiation to occur, carcinogen-altered cells must undergo at least one cycle of proliferation so that the change in DNA becomes fixed or permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>-cell proliferation may be induced by concurrent exposure to biologic agents such as viruses and parasites, dietary factors, or hormonal influences. </li></ul>
  267. 269. Promotion of Chemical Carcinogenesis <ul><li>Application of promoters leads to proliferation and clonal expansion of initiated (mutated) cells </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to proliferate, the initiated clone of cells suffers additional mutations, developing eventually into a malignant tumor </li></ul>
  268. 270. Carcinogenic Chemicals <ul><li>Direct-Acting Alkylating Agents- are activation independent and are weak carcinogens. Nonetheless, they are important because many are therapeutic agents (e.g., cyclophosphamide , chlorambucil , busulfan , and melphalan ) These are used as anticancer drugs but have been documented to induce lymphoid neoplasms, leukemia, and other forms of cancer. </li></ul>
  269. 271. <ul><li>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons- represent some of the most potent carcinogens known </li></ul><ul><li>-require metabolic activation and can induce tumors in a wide variety of tissues and species. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Painted on the skin, they cause skin cancers; </li></ul><ul><li>injected subcutaneously, they induce sarcomas; </li></ul><ul><li>-The polycyclic hydrocarbons are of particular interest as carcinogens because they are produced in the combustion of tobacco, particularly with cigarette smoking, and are thought to contribute to the causation of lung and bladder cancers </li></ul>
  270. 272. <ul><li>Aromatic Amines and Azo Dyes- The carcinogenicity of most aromatic amines and azo dyes is exerted mainly in the liver, where the &quot;ultimate carcinogen&quot; is formed by the action of the cytochrome P-450 oxygenase systems. </li></ul><ul><li>-Thus, fed to rats, acetylaminofluorene and the azo dyes induce hepatocellular carcinomas </li></ul>
  271. 273. <ul><li>Naturally Occurring Carcinogens- the potent hepatic carcinogen aflatoxin B1 is particularly important. </li></ul><ul><li>-This mycotoxin is produced by some strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus that thrive on improperly stored corn, rice, and peanuts. </li></ul>
  272. 274. <ul><li>Nitrosamines and Amides- possibility that they are formed in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and so may contribute to the induction of gastric carcinoma. They are derived in the stomach from the reaction of nitrostable amines and nitrate used as a preservative, which is converted to nitrites by bacteria. </li></ul>
  273. 275. <ul><li>Miscellaneous Agents - asbestos has been associated with bronchogenic carcinomas, mesotheliomas, and gastrointestinal cancers </li></ul><ul><li>-cigarette smoking heightens the risk of bronchogenic carcinoma </li></ul>
  274. 276. RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS <ul><li>Radiant energy, whether in the form of the UV rays of sunlight or as ionizing electromagnetic and particulate radiation, can transform virtually all cell types in vitro and induce neoplasms in vivo in both humans and experimental animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. UV light is clearly implicated in the </li></ul><ul><li>causation of skin cancers </li></ul>
  275. 277. Ultraviolet Rays <ul><li>UV rays derived from the sun induce an increased incidence of squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and possibly malignant melanoma of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>UVB (280 to 320 nm) is believed to be responsible for the induction of cutaneous cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>UVC (200 to 280

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