Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A 1 (2011) 1280-1283Earlier title: Journal of Agricultural Science and Tech...
Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef Cattle 1281second arises bec...
1282 Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef CattleTable 2 Means val...
Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef Cattle 1283[5]  Michoacán y ...
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Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef Cattle

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Animal nutrition is one of the most important limiting factors in animal production, especially in ruminants, providing
proteins being the main constraint, due to the limited availability and high cost of protein sources (oilseed meals). Currently in the dam
““El Infiernillo”” in Michoacán México, has a large population of devil fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.), which is an economic and ecological
problem, because it is not consumed by humans and causes pollution to be discarded directly into the environment. For that reason the
objective of this study was to evaluate the use of silage acid devil fish (SADF) in fattening beef cattle as a protein supplement. SADF is
defined as a product semi-liquid or pasty mixed with formic acid, which leads to a decrease in pH to near 4.0. Used 18 young bulls (Bos
taurus × Bos indicus) for 60 days with a starting weight of 278.9 ± 51.2 kg, housed in individual pens with food and water ad libitum
were randomly assigned to three treatments with different levels of inclusion SADF (0%, 12% and 18%). They were weighed to the
beginning of the experiment and later every 30 days, previous fasting of 24 hours. To determine the food consumption, weigh every day
the offered food and the surplus. There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments with different levels of inclusion of
SADF with respect to daily weight gain, with values of 952 ± 324, 927 ± 322 and 854 ± 307 g/day, respectively. The dry matter intake
(DMI) was 8.9, 9.3 and 7.7 kg/day to 0%, 12% and 18% of SADF, respectively. In the same values for feed conversion were 9.34, 10.03
and 9.01 kg DMI/kg of weigh live, and carcass yield of 60.6%, 60.3% and 58.5%, respectively. It is concluded that fish silage acid devil
is an excellent alternative in feeding beef cattle as a protein supplement.

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Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef Cattle

  1. 1. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A 1 (2011) 1280-1283Earlier title: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, ISSN 1939-1250Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) asProtein Supplement in Finishing Beef CattleS. Ornelas1, E. Gutiérrez1, A. Juárez1, R. Garcidueñas2, J. L. Espinoza3, M. Perea1, J. P. Flores1 and G. Salas11. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Km 9.5Carretera Morelia-Zinapécuaro 58880, Tarímbaro Michoacán, México2. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Km 9.5 carreteraMorelia-Zinapécuaro 58880, Tarímbaro Michoacán, México3. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, Carretera al Sur Km 5.5 Apartado Postal 19-B 23080, La Paz Baja California Sur,MéxicoReceived: August 18, 2011 / Published: December 20, 2011.Abstract: Animal nutrition is one of the most important limiting factors in animal production, especially in ruminants, providingproteins being the main constraint, due to the limited availability and high cost of protein sources (oilseed meals). Currently in the dam““El Infiernillo”” in Michoacán México, has a large population of devil fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.), which is an economic and ecologicalproblem, because it is not consumed by humans and causes pollution to be discarded directly into the environment. For that reason theobjective of this study was to evaluate the use of silage acid devil fish (SADF) in fattening beef cattle as a protein supplement. SADF isdefined as a product semi-liquid or pasty mixed with formic acid, which leads to a decrease in pH to near 4.0. Used 18 young bulls (Bostaurus × Bos indicus) for 60 days with a starting weight of 278.9 ± 51.2 kg, housed in individual pens with food and water ad libitumwere randomly assigned to three treatments with different levels of inclusion SADF (0%, 12% and 18%). They were weighed to thebeginning of the experiment and later every 30 days, previous fasting of 24 hours. To determine the food consumption, weigh every daythe offered food and the surplus. There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments with different levels of inclusion ofSADF with respect to daily weight gain, with values of 952 ± 324, 927 ± 322 and 854 ± 307 g/day, respectively. The dry matter intake(DMI) was 8.9, 9.3 and 7.7 kg/day to 0%, 12% and 18% of SADF, respectively. In the same values for feed conversion were 9.34, 10.03and 9.01 kg DMI/kg of weigh live, and carcass yield of 60.6%, 60.3% and 58.5%, respectively. It is concluded that fish silage acid devilis an excellent alternative in feeding beef cattle as a protein supplement.Key words: Fish silage acid, devil fish, finishing beef cattle.1. Introduction (beef cattle, sheep, goats) is the provision of protein, due to limited availability of sources of quality and Due to the problems facing the international high cost of traditional inputs (oilmeals and fish meal).community and the uncertainty about food safety, the Therefore, it is necessary to search for sources ofneed to find new ways to feed for cattle, which are quality protein for animal feed, especially of productsinexpensive, easy to adopt and preserve the and by-products unfit for human consumption [1].environment. Among the most important factors in The devil fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) since itsanimal production food stands, this represents introduction in México in 2005, has grown alarminglybetween 50% and 80% of production costs. Similarly, in a few years [2]. Has generated three major negativeone of the most limiting factors in breeding ruminants effects: the first is transferred to becoming a dominant Corresponding author: G. Salas, Ph.D., research fields: fish species from México, having no natural enemiesanimal reproduction, rural technology, animal production in the food chain and South America (crocodiles), thesystems. E-mail: gsalas55@hotmail.com.
  2. 2. Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef Cattle 1281second arises because the food sucks background Table 1 Experimental diets fed to beef cattle with different levels of inclusion of silage acid devil fish.without selecting their food, and often ingests the Ingredients (%) T1 T2 T3other species lay eggs on the bottom of their habitat, Silage acid devil fish (dry basis) - 12 18thereby preventing the production of offspring, and Canola 21 7 -finally the third problem is the result of the lack of Corn ground 38.8 26 19.5sanitary measures for waste these fish. Currently it can Stubble ground 38.3 54 61.5 Magnofoscal 1 1 1be considered as an available and inexpensive to be Phosphate rock 0.9 - -used as a protein source in animal feed. Research has Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets.shown that fish was not eaten by man and fish wastecan serve as protein supplements in animal diets [3, 4]. surplus of each pen, a mechanical scale withFor this reason the present investigation was designed maximum clock rate of 10 kg and a sensitivity of 10 g.to evaluate the use of silage acid devil fish protein For the determination of dry matter intake, weighedsupplement in feed for beef cattle, in terms of 100 g samples of leftover food in an electronic scalevoluntary intake, weight gain and feed conversion. with sensitivity of 0.1 g and then the samples wereAnd organoleptic caracteristics of meat from animals dehydrated using the methodology Waves offed with fish silage acid devil, specifically smell and radiofrequencies or also called Drying of fodders withflavor. microwave [6]. For the determination of weight gain, animals were weighed at the beginning of the2. Materials and Methods experiment and then every 30 days, fasted for 24 The experiment was conducted in a semi-tech hours. At the end of the experiment was determinedproduction in Santa Cruz, Tzintzuntzan municipality live weight (kg) and animals were slaughtered for theof Michoacán State México. The climate is temperate carcass and the meat organoleptic caracteristics (smellwith summer rainfall, the annual average rainfall of and flavor).989.8 mm and temperatures ranging from 7.9 °C to The information collected was processed using23.4 °C (http://www.municipiosmich.gob.mx.) [5]. descriptive statistical techniques and analysis ofUsed 18 young bulls (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) for 60 variance one way, according to the guidelines defineddays with a starting weight of 278.9 ± 51.2 kg, the by Steel and Torrie [7] for the general linear model:animals were ear tagged and administered Yij = + i + ij. The comparison of means wasintramuscularly a mixture of vitamins A, D and E, performed using the Tukey test [8].11-way bacterin and ivermectin 1%. The animals were 3. Results and Discussionrandomized into three treatments and were housed inindividual pens of 4.8 m2, which possessed a With the statistical analysis it was determined thatparticular linear feeder, food and clean water ad there were no significant differences (P < 0.05) withlibitum. The treatments consisted of the inclusion of respect to dry matter intake and weight gain in thethree levels of silage acid devil fish (0%, 12% and assessment period (60 days) among the treatments with18%) as shown in Table 1. The bulls were subjected to 0%, 12% and 18% including acid devil fish silage (Tablea period of adaptation to the diets of 15 days and later 2). In this regard several authors [1, 9-11] have showngrowing stage for 60 days. that ruminants can degrade the protein in fish silage after During the experiment the food was offered ad a period initial adjustment. With regard to weight gain,libitum, and individual food consumption was little information exists, however [12] conducted a studyassessed daily by difference between offered and the with 30 bulls for fattening (90 days), supplemented
  3. 3. 1282 Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef CattleTable 2 Means values for feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle fed diets with different levels of silageacid devil fish.Variable T1 T2 T3N° of animals 6 6 6Initial weight (kg) 282.3 ± 36.0 281.3 ± 54.6 273.2 ± 67.7Final weight (kg) 339.5 ± 10.6 a 337.0 ± 18.76 a 324.5 ± 5.65 aDaily gain (g) 952 ± 324 a 927 ± 322 a 854 ± 307 aCVMS (kg) 8.79 ± 1.26 a 8.43 ± 1.58 a 8.04 ± 2.24 aFeed conversion 9.23 9.09 9.41Performence of the carcass (%) 60.60 ± 1.87 60.30 ± 1.58 58.56 ± 3.09ab Different letters in the same line indicate differences (P < 0.05).with 0, 100, 200 and 300 g of silage dry matter silage acid devil fish.biological fish, reporting an increase in body weight 4. Conclusionincreased in animals supplemented with 100 g ofsilage. Moreover, there is no information that allows The silage acid devil fish is an excellent alternativeus to compare the performance of silage acid devil to feeding cattle meat and protein supplement.fish with other silage in feeding beef cattle. However, Variables average daily gain and voluntary intakethe results of this research can be comparable to fish of dry matter were not affected by the inclusion ofmeal, why these have similar characteristics, and some acid devil fish silage in diets, possibly sobrepasantesother unconventional sources of protein. In this regard effects and a better balance of protein/energy productsObispo [13] conducted a study of cattle in order to absorbed.evaluate the effect of supplementing the diet with The health of the animals was not affected, becausedifferent protein sources as fish meal, brewery nepe the acid levels devil fish silage in diets did not causeand cottonseed meal. Reporting daily gains (g/day) of any problem related to the physiological test animal.fishmeal = 590; brewery nepe = 890 and cottonseed In terms of efficiency in weight gain and feedmeal = 690, and feed conversion: fishmeal = 11.05; conversion, with 12% dietary inclusion of silage acidbrewery nepe = 7.49 and cottonseed meal = 9.92 (kg devil fish was the most efficient level when comparedfeed/kg gain). Thus can determine that the use of with 0% and 18% inclusion.silage acid devil fish in fattening cattle is comparableto other protein sources, obtain favorable results. As Referencesshown in Table 2, the daily weight gain of treatment [1] T.E. Hassan, J.L. Heath, Biological fermentation of fish waste for potential use in animal and poultry feeds,with 12% and 18% (927 ± 322 and 854 ± 307 g) of Agricultural Wastes 15 (1986) 1-15.silage acid devil fish was similar to the control diet [2] P.C.A. Martínez, C.M. Toledo, M.A. Campos, M.J.and the above treatments. Fonseca, D.M.G. Ríos, R. Rueda, et al., Technological Research has shown that when supplemented with development and industrialization for the use of devil fish in the region of Bajo Balsas, 2 do. Congress IDEAR,feeding bypass protein present in fish meal may 2006.improve growth rate and feed efficiency in dairy [3] A.E. Sanjuán, Biological fermentation of sludge from theheifers and steers [14-16]. However, little information tuna industry as a potential source of protein for theexists that allows us to better compare the results nutrition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), University de Puerto Rico. RUM, 2002, p. 113.obtained in this experiment, which is necessary to [4] F. Oyedapo, K. Jauncey, Chemical and nutritional qualityextend the studies in ruminants, particularly in aspects of stored fermented fish (tilapia) silage, Bioresourceof digestibility and degradability of protein in the Technology 0960-8524 (1993) 207-210.
  4. 4. Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef Cattle 1283[5] Michoacán y sus Municipios, Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, a Supplement via Microbial Protein in the Diet of Physiographic characteristics, Consultation: December 15, Ruminants, FAO Fisheries Report No. 441, The 2nd 2010, available online at: http://www.municipios.gob.mx. Expert Consultation on Seafood Technology in Latin[6] W.F. Raymond, C.E. Harris, The laboratory drying of America, Montevideo, Uruguay, 11-15/12/89, pp. 99-106. herbage and faeces, and dry matter losses possible during Mampostón, Revista Aquatic, No. 25, 1990, pp. 28-33. drying, J. British Grassland 9 (1954) 120-129. [13] E.N. Obispo, P. Pares, C. Hidalgo, J. Palma, S. Godoy,[7] R. Steel, J. Torrie, Biostatistics: Principles and Consumption of Forage and Daily Weight Gain in Cattle Procedures, 2nd ed., Mac Graw Gill, Nueva York, 1985. of Meat in Growth Supplemented with Protein Sources,[8] SAS, SAS/STAT® User’’s Guide (Release 9.1), SAS inst. Tropical Animal Production, 2001. Inc., Cary, N.C., 2002. [14] D. Tomlinson, R. James, G. Bethard, M. McGilliard,[9] K. Winter, L. Feltham, Fish Silage: the Protein Solution, Influence of degradability of protein in the diet on intake, Agriculture Canada Research Branch Contribution, daily gain, feed efficiency and body composition of Ottawa, Canada, 1983, p.112. Holstein heifers, J. Dairy Sci. 80 (1997) 943-948.[10] J. Lindgren, Silage fermentation of fish waste products [15] E. Zerbini, C. Polan, Protein source evaluated for with lactic acid bacteria, J. Sci. Food Agric. 34 (1983) ruminanting Holstein calves, J. Dairy. Sci. 68 (1985) 1057-1067. 14-16.[11] W.J. Ward, G.A. Parrott, D.G. Iredale, Fish waste as [16] A. Reaño, A. Meléndez, J. Márquez, J. Combellas, silage for use as a feed supplement, Canadian Industry Influece of fish meal and dehydrated brewers grains on Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 158 (1985) intake, live-weightgain and rumen digestión of growing iv-10. cattle consuming fresh cut forage, Livestock Research for[12] C. Viete, R. Bello, Evaluation of Processed Fish Silage as Rural Development 4 (1992) 1-7.

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