Instructional Design  Reading Quiz by: Chrissy Jarvis
Table of Contents <ul><li>slide 3, 4..............................  </li></ul><ul><li>slide 5, 6.............................
 
History of Instructional Design <ul><li>In the late 1800's, the study of learning actually began. However, it wasn't until...
 
Definition of Instructional Design <ul><li>Instructional design is the process of design not only for function, but for ap...
 
Notion of &quot;Systems&quot; <ul><li>Systems is defined as a &quot;set of interrelated and interacting parts that work to...
 
Use of ID Models <ul><ul><li>Enable people to visualize reality.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify more complex forms, ...
 
1 ID Model - Gerlach & Ely <ul><li>Gerlach and Ely model is a mixture of linear and concurrent developmental activities. S...
 
2 ID Model  Heinich, Molenda, Russell & Smaldino <ul><li>This model is a classroom-oriented instructional development mode...
 
3 ID Model   Newby, Stepich, Lehman and Russell <ul><li>This model focuses &quot;on classroom instruction created and deli...
 
4 ID Model  Morrison, Ross & Kemp  <ul><li>This model is popular and includes project management and support services with...
 
5 ID Model   The Diamond Model <ul><li>The Diamond model is a developmental model specific to higher education institution...
 
6 ID Model  Smith and Ragan  <ul><li>This model is an instructional design process model. It is very popular in the field ...
 
Constructivism <ul><li>Constructivism is the belief that reality is constructed rather than discovered. Many times it incl...
 
Empiricism <ul><li>Empiricism is philosophy that learning is acquired through experience. It often involves experimentatio...
 
Behaviorism <ul><li>Behaviorism is the belief that learning is only those things that can be observed and measured. It is ...
 
Information-Processing Theory <ul><li>Information-processing theory describe learning as transformations of information th...
 
ID and Educational Technology <ul><li>Instructional design and educational technology form a never-ending, entwined circle...
References <ul><li>K. Gustafson and R. Branch. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology.;United States.,  Survey of ...
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Instructional design reading_quiz

  1. 1. Instructional Design  Reading Quiz by: Chrissy Jarvis
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>slide 3, 4.............................. </li></ul><ul><li>slide 5, 6.............................. </li></ul><ul><li>slide 7, 8.............................. </li></ul><ul><li>slide 9,10............................. </li></ul><ul><li>slide 11, 12.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 13, 14.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 15, 16.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 17, 18.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 19, 20.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 21, 22.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 23, 24.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 25, 26.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 27, 28.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 29, 30.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 31, 32.......................... </li></ul><ul><li>slide 33................................ </li></ul><ul><li>History of ID </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of ID </li></ul><ul><li>Notion of &quot;Systems&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ID models </li></ul><ul><li>ID model #1 </li></ul><ul><li>ID model #2 </li></ul><ul><li>ID model #3 </li></ul><ul><li>ID model #4 </li></ul><ul><li>ID model #5 </li></ul><ul><li>ID model #6 </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing Theory </li></ul><ul><li>ID and Educational Technology </li></ul><ul><li>APA References </li></ul>
  3. 4. History of Instructional Design <ul><li>In the late 1800's, the study of learning actually began. However, it wasn't until World War II that researchers, psychologists, and educators conducted research and developed training material for the military.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>They used their knowledge to assess and test trainees. After the war much of this research continued. Key contributors of the time were Gagne, Miller, Mager, and Bloom. (Reiser, p. 59) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a picture of WWII planes, one because these old planes remind me of WWII and two, because ID really took a formal approach during WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SBDs_and_Mikuma.jpg </li></ul>
  4. 6. Definition of Instructional Design <ul><li>Instructional design is the process of design not only for function, but for appeal. This includes problem-solving procedures, a solution, developing materials and activities, and to create instruction that is efficient. This does not mean it solely relates to education. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It can be defined using the acronym ADDIE - Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. (Gustafson and Branch, p. 15) </li></ul><ul><li>The cathedral is an example of ID. It is not made to be solely functional, but also created to be appealing to the viewer. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/vintzileos/400058093/ </li></ul>
  5. 8. Notion of &quot;Systems&quot; <ul><li>Systems is defined as a &quot;set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together towards some common goal.&quot; (Smith and Ragan, p. 24) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are naturally existing and usually their are systems within a system. Systematic Instructional Design supports effective, efficient instruction, coordination on instruction, and supports development and framework for other systems. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose the human body photo because it contains many systems within a system to efficiently and effectively work. Together they coordinate and support each other. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/guccibear2005/162546715/ </li></ul>
  6. 10. Use of ID Models <ul><ul><li>Enable people to visualize reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify more complex forms, processes, or functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire research questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help develop operational tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to adapt and modify them for different conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrate procedures that make instruction possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different models for different situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a model car because it signifies a realistic, visual representation of the real thing for people. One can see the transformation, function, and process using a model. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/frogdna/3840382133/   </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/frogdna/3841174950/ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 12. 1 ID Model - Gerlach & Ely <ul><li>Gerlach and Ely model is a mixture of linear and concurrent developmental activities. Some steps are simultaneous.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>This model is best used by classroom teachers who are both the designer and deliverer of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The steps are identifying content, specifying objectives, assessment of entering behaviors, then five interactive activities, followed by evaluation of performance and analysis of feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a picture of sheet music because the notes are linear, but also played concurrently with other notes. Many times the musician is also the designer and deliverer. </li></ul><ul><li>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Music.gif </li></ul>
  8. 14. 2 ID Model  Heinich, Molenda, Russell & Smaldino <ul><li>This model is a classroom-oriented instructional development model. It uses the acronym ASSURE, which is most adopted college text on media and technology for teachers. (Ragan & Smith, p. 22) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A - Analyze learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S - State objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S - Select Media and materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U - Utilize Media and materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R - Require learner participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E - Evaluate and revise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a picture of a hug because a hug is always Re&quot; assure&quot; ing. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/chicagoceli/157764976/ </li></ul>
  9. 16. 3 ID Model   Newby, Stepich, Lehman and Russell <ul><li>This model focuses &quot;on classroom instruction created and delivered by the same individual...with an emphasis on using media and technology to assist them.&quot; (Gustafson and Branch, p. 24)  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It uses the PIE acronym, which shifts from classrooms focusing on the teacher, but focusing on the learner. The teacher is more of a facilitator in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P - Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  I -  Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E - Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a picture of a pie because of the fitting acronym. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/25863947@N05/2590107565/ </li></ul>
  10. 18. 4 ID Model  Morrison, Ross & Kemp <ul><li>This model is popular and includes project management and support services with a focus on curriculum planning. It uses learner perspective. It includes six main questions and nine elements in the development plan.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>This model is a continuous cycle that includes revision as an ongoing process. There is no start and stop point to this model and continues to be modified over time. </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a picture of a bridge, because here in Portland, Oregon we have two bridges, one is  named the Morrison bridge and another the Ross Island bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/manteys/2381693525/ </li></ul>
  11. 20. 5 ID Model   The Diamond Model <ul><li>The Diamond model is a developmental model specific to higher education institutions. This model is a team effort which requires input from personnel and faculty. It is also sensitive to political and social issues. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two phases: the project selection and design, and production, implementation, and evaluation.It is also recommended that the thought process is in ideal terms to expand creativity. Ownership is also recommended and organization to support efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a picture of a Diamond; symbolic of the model name. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brillanten.jpg   </li></ul>
  12. 22. 6 ID Model  Smith and Ragan <ul><li>This model is an instructional design process model. It is very popular in the field of instructional technology.  </li></ul><ul><li>This model has three phases:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>They believe applying a systematic, problem-solving process results in effective, learner-centered instruction. (Gustafson & Branch, p. 59)  The model is strong in developing instructional strategies; a weakness of other models. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a picture of an Ace card; it is similar to ASE. They do not use the acronym, but that's what I thought of when I saw these steps. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  http://www.flickr.com/photos/yanks4life23519/2951771505/ </li></ul>
  13. 24. Constructivism <ul><li>Constructivism is the belief that reality is constructed rather than discovered. Many times it includes the theory of contextualism, which encompasses authentic learning and anchored instruction.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism considers multiple perspectives, creative strategies, and that &quot;knowlege is never passively acquired&quot; (Smith and Ragan, p. 154). Knowlege is generated by the learner.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose the staircase as the picture because when constructed they lead to different levels. One must build on prior knowledge (steps) and when constructed correctly they lead the learner to a new level of knowledge and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://bit.ly/bZPdEK </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  14. 26. Empiricism <ul><li>Empiricism is philosophy that learning is acquired through experience. It often involves experimentation, belief in a singular and objective reality, observation, and the use of ones senses to learn. They believe that everyones mind begins as a blank slate and from each experience we add to our our knowledge base. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a piece of notebook paper as the picture to represent empiricism because it begins as a blank, empty sheet, but once written on, becomes a masterpiece of information. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Se%C5%A1ity.JPG </li></ul>
  15. 28. Behaviorism <ul><li>Behaviorism is the belief that learning is only those things that can be observed and measured. It is also called the learning perspective, which means that any physical action is a behavior. Learning is evidenced when learners exhibit the appropriate response to particular stimulus. (Smith and Ragan, p. 25) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose the elephant spraying itself with dust because it is a behavior they learn from other elephants to keep cool. This behavior is observable and measurable, thus proves the elephant is learning according to the behaviorist theory. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/jayanthsharma/2510121877/ </li></ul>
  16. 30. Information-Processing Theory <ul><li>Information-processing theory describe learning as transformations of information through a series of structures in the brain. It is a set of theories that are in strong contrast to behavioral theories. </li></ul><ul><li>The model includes steps of environment, sensory register and selective perception, working memory, encoding and long-term memory, retrieval and response generator, and effectors. </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a picture of a telephone because information-processing theory reminds me of many steps to communicating through a phone.You must know the number, dial, it then must encode, and someone must be on the other end to retrieve it. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/curtisperry/322049960/ </li></ul>
  17. 32. ID and Educational Technology <ul><li>Instructional design and educational technology form a never-ending, entwined circle.  </li></ul><ul><li>Technology has transformed ID with the world wide web, software programs, video, multimedia, and computers. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ID has transformed teaching by creating integrated curriculum designs. There is continual increasing interest in the design and development of technology-based instruction.  </li></ul><ul><li>ID and educational technology are both processes and ideas, a device, a system, and is used to develop education of all types. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I chose a wheel and tire to symbolize ID and Ed. Tech. because they rely on each other to work effectively. Also they are round, thus never-ending.   </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>http://bit.ly/9ullwl   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 33. References <ul><li>K. Gustafson and R. Branch. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology.;United States., Survey of instructional development models , 4th ed. (Syracuse N.Y.: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, 2002).   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>R. A. Reiser, “A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media,” Educational Technology Research and Development 49, no. 1 (2001): 53-64.    </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>P. Smith, T. Ragan; Instructional design , 3rd ed. (Hoboken N.J.: J. Wiley & Sons, 2005).   </li></ul>

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