Agriculture – Intenseuse can cause loss ofsoil, erosion, and duststorms. Use ofpesticides can affectboth surface water andgroundwater quality. Intense irrigationcauses water loss fromthe natural system
Pesticides poisonthe water thatplants, animals, andhumans use daily
Grazing – Overgrazing can cause loss ofvegetation, invasion of exotic species, soilerosion, and nutrient loss.
Grazing lands are the most degraded land usetypes in the world Overgrazing along with over-trampling lead tothe reduction of vegetative cover, exposure ofsoil to erosion, and ultimately to desertification
The mostcommonovergrazing isdone bydomesticanimals
Forestry– Intenselogging or clear cuttingcreates conditions forincreased erosion;eroded andtransported sedimentcan cause increasedsediment loading instreams, which couldaffect fluvial habitat.
Logging takes nutrients and minerals out thesoil Logging makes erosion easier because the thetree is no longer there to hold the soil andwater
Water impoundment – This has the potentialto affect one segment of a stream or river oran entire watershed. Controlled volume offlow does not duplicate natural events, suchas floods and drought. It can affect thesediment load, change the streammorphology, and alter the habitat that isdependent on a fluvial system.
Waterimpoundment candeplete differentspecies of fish byaltering theirnatural habitat It yields a flow ofecosystemservices such asnutrient cycling
Waterimpoundment putsa halt on animportantecosystem serviceprovided by rivers:fisheriesproduction
Urbanization – This can cause a host ofimpacts, but a few stand outs are: change indrainage patterns because of impervioussurfaces (streets, parking lots, pavement,buildings), increased erosion, affects onsurface and groundwater quality and quantity,release of toxins into the air, increasedhumidity in arid regions
Impervioussurfaces affectsinfiltrationcapacity whichalso createserosion New constructionaffects sedimentinput into thestreams
Alterations to shorelines – Dredging, beachmining, river modification, installation ofprotective structures, and removal of back-shore vegetation can potentially altershoreline processes, position, andmorphology by changing the sediment supply,transport, and erosion.
Installation of damsreduces the amountof sediments flowingwhich can causeerosion on theshores
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