Fostering Historical Inquiry in the Middle Years Classroom


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Fostering Historical Inquiry in the Middle Years Classroom

  1. 1. Fostering Historical Inquiry in the Middle Years History Classroom Dr Catherine Hart Luther College, Croydon
  2. 2. Learning in the middle years needs to be RELEVANT
  3. 3. • Relevant to policy & curriculum• Relevant to learners (VELS - Unit of work – sequence of lessons)
  4. 4. Learning in the middle years needs to be PURPOSEFUL
  5. 5. Supporting conceptual development
  6. 6. Concepts
  7. 7. Learning in the middle years needs to beCLEAR and EXPLICIT
  8. 8. Learning in the middle years needs to be MANAGEABLE
  9. 9. Learning in the middle years needs to be LEARNER CENTRED
  10. 10. How do learning tasks ENGAGElearners? What is your ‘hook’?How do learning tasks cater fordifferent STUDENT ABILITIESand LEARNING STYLES?
  11. 11. • 96I
  12. 12. A sample year 7 history lesson: The UNIT context‘Time Detectives’ unit of work20-24 lessons (5-6 weeks)Beginning of year 7Key inquiry questions:How do we learn from what others left behind?What will others learn from us in the future?
  13. 13. The VELS context
  14. 14. Before SAMPLE lesson:1. How do we investigate the past? Why is it important?2. What is archaeology? What is it not?3. Why is archaeology important? What do archaeologists do?4. The archaeological process - why do it and how is it done? (LESSON FITS IN HERE)
  15. 15. Sample lesson
  16. 16. And in the next few lessons…
  17. 17. Lesson auditRelevant?Purposeful?Clear and explicit?Manageable?Learner centred?
  18. 18. What is this?
  19. 19. This is the Mercator map (1596).For most of the 20th century, the NationalGeographic Society, various atlases, andclassroom wall cartographers used the Mercatorprojection for most world maps.Cartography: study of maps, making of
  20. 20. Do you see any problem with usingthis map in the classroom?
  21. 21. The Greenland problem
  22. 22. Actual StatisticsGreenland: 2.175 million sq kmAfrica: 31 million sq kmAfrica is 14 times larger than Greenland!In fact:Africa could hold the landoccupied by China, India,Europe, Argentina, NewZealand and the continentalUnited States, with room tospare!
  23. 23. The North compared to the South Actual statistics  The North is 49 million sq km.  The South is 100 million sq km.
  24. 24. Europe compared to SouthAmerica Actual statistics  Europe is 9.8 million sq km.  South America is 17.9 million sq km.
  25. 25. Why does this distortion occur?Geradus Mercator invented his famous projection in 1596 as an aid tonavigators. On his map, lines of latitude and longitude intersect at rightangles and thus the direction of travel - the rhumb line - is consistent. It isa cylindrical map, thats why the landforms on this map becomeincreasingly distorted the farther you get from the equator. The distortionof the Mercator Map increases as you move north and south from theequator.Mercator never intended his map to be used for purposes
  26. 26. Why was the Mercator Map used whenthe distortion was known?This was convenient, psychologically and practically, through the eras ofcolonial domination when most of the world powers were European. Itsuited them to maintain an image of the world with Europe at the centreand looking much larger than it really was. Was this conscious ordeliberate? Probably not, as most map users probably never realised theEurocentric bias inherent in their world view.When there are so many other projections to chose from, why is it thattoday the Mercator projection is still such a widely recognised
  27. 27. The Peters MapA different type of projection is an ‘Equal-Area’ projection.This shows sizes in proportion while sacrificing true shape.The Peters Projection (1974) is one type of equal areamap.
  28. 28. The Peters map cont.Here are some facts about the Peters map: The Peters Map is an equal area map. This new map shows all areas - whether countries, continents or oceans - according to their actual size. Accurate comparisons become possible. The Peters Map is an equal axis map. All North-South lines run vertical on this map. Thus, geographic points can be seen in their precise directional relationship. The Peters Map shows equal positions. All East-West Lines run parallel. Thus the relationship of any point on the map to its distance from the equator or the angle of the sun can readily be determined.
  29. 29. Comparing the Mercator and the Peters mapL RWhich one immediately looks more ‘normal’ to you?Which one is the Mercator map?