01 Introduction To CSS

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01 Introduction To CSS

  1. 1. Introduction to CSS Web Development 101 Lesson 01.02
  2. 2. What you already know What is “The Web” What is HTML What is a DOM Why the web matters as a technology
  3. 3. What we’ll learn How to change the appearance of HTML How to control page layout How to make a single web page look great on multiple devices
  4. 4. au·to·mo·bile Noun A road vehicle, typically with four wheels, powered by an internal combustion engine or electric motor and able to carry a small number of people.
  5. 5. Automobile = (Chair + 4 Wheels + Engine)
  6. 6. Early Feature Creep Air conditioning Heated / Cooled Seats Radio Tire pressure monitors Tape Player Automatic transmission CD Player Bluetooth Phone Integration MP3 Player Laser Assisted Cruise Control GPS Navigation Automatic parallel parking?
  7. 7. Web = (HTML Documents + Hyper Links + Browser)
  8. 8. Web Feature Creep Pictures AJAX Complex layouts Authenticated User Sessions Animation Single Page Applications Interactivity Streaming Audio and Video Forms
  9. 9. A programmer’s job is to manage complexity.
  10. 10. Tools for managing complexity Modules: separate code into pieces by subject and concern Layers: abstract complexity into layers. Higher layers build on top of lower layers. Lower layers hide complexity from higher layers. Declarative programming: name code by what it accomplishes, not how it accomplishes it.
  11. 11. parfait The Web is an onion
  12. 12. Client Side Stack HTML — Document Content and Structure CSS — Visual Presentation Javascript/ECMAScript — Interactivity
  13. 13. Anatomy of a CSS Rule .blogPost { font-size: 13px; font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: #333; }
  14. 14. Anatomy of a CSS Rule .blogPost { font-size: 13px; font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: #333; }
  15. 15. Anatomy of a CSS Rule .blogPost { font-size: 13px; font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: #333; }
  16. 16. Anatomy of a CSS Rule .blogPost { font-size: 13px; font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: #333; }
  17. 17. Anatomy of a CSS Rule .blogPost { font-size: 13px; font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: #333; }
  18. 18. Anatomy of a CSS Rule .blogPost { font-size: 13px; font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: #333; }
  19. 19. Anatomy of a CSS Rule .blogPost { font-size: 13px; font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: #333; }
  20. 20. Discuss 01.02.01 <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Hello World</title> </head> <body> <h1>My First Webpage</h1> <p>Lorem Ipsum</p> </body> </html> html { font: 13px/1.5 Helvetica, Arial; color: #333; } h1 { color: #FF0000; font-size: 20px; }
  21. 21. Selectors query the DOM p { ... } header p { ... } h1 { ... } #elem a { ... } #myElem { ... } a[href="http://www.jw.org"] { ... } .someClass { ... } a:hover { ... } #parent > .someClass { ... } a:focus { ... }
  22. 22. Colors are numeric Colors are 3 or 6 digit hexadecimal numbers. #FFF, #3FA2BF, #2F798F Hexadecimal is base-16. {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F} One digit is 4 bits (1 nibble, half an octet) A color is 3 octets (24 bits). 8 bits for each Red, Green, Blue. BONUS: How many distinct colors can be represented?
  23. 23. #FFFFFF #000000 #006600 #CC0000 LORIM LORIM LORIM LORIM IPSUM IPSUM IPSUM IPSUM
  24. 24. Basic Properties background-color: #FFF; background-image: url(‘...’); background-repeat: no-repeat; border: 1px solid #FFF; display: block; font-family: Palatino, Georgia, serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; left: 50px; margin: 1em 2em 1em 2em; height: 5em; max-height: 500px; max-width: 960px; min-height: 200px; min-width: 20em; opacity: 0.5; overflow: hidden; padding: 1em 2em 1em 2em; position: relative; right: 20px; text-align: left; text-decoration: underline; width: 400px; z-index: 4000;
  25. 25. Basic Properties background-color: #FFF; background-image: url(‘...’); background-repeat: no-repeat; border: 1px solid #FFF; display: block; font-family: Palatino, Georgia, serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; left: 50px; margin: 1em 2em 1em 2em; height: 5em; max-height: 500px; max-width: 960px; min-height: 200px; min-width: 20em; opacity: 0.5; overflow: hidden; padding: 1em 2em 1em 2em; position: relative; right: 20px; text-align: left; text-decoration: underline; width: 400px; z-index: 4000;
  26. 26. CSS Box Model OR How every element on a web page is a rectangle
  27. 27. Experiment: Chrome Dev Tools * { border: 1px solid red !important; }
  28. 28. Box Model Property Shorthand #myBox { top right bottom left margin: 10px 20px 30px 40px; } #yourBox { margin-top: 10px; margin-right: 20px; margin-bottom: 30px; margin-left: 40px; }
  29. 29. Dimensions Pixels (px) are the smallest possible unit on a screen Percents (%) allow sizing based on the size of the parent container Ems (em) are equal to the font-size of the parent element Generally use pixels for fonts & borders. Percents and Ems for layout Designs must re-flow with the screen. Fixed width is bad practice.
  30. 30. Review What is CSS? How do selectors work? How do you specify colors in CSS? Whats the box model? According to the box model, what order is spacing applied in? What units are available for dimensions?
  31. 31. Discuss 01.02.02 What selector would you use to... Select the top-level element in the document Select the `<div>` element with the `container` class Select all of the links in the document Select the element with the ID of `title`
  32. 32. Discuss 01.02.03 What elements are being selected? What colors are being used? How do colors work in CSS? What kind of font and font styling are being applied? Whats the difference between width and max-width? What is margin and padding? How are the similar? How are they different? Short-hand vs. Long-hand CSS? Why define the width as a percentage instead of in pixels? What fonts can you use in CSS? Why are there multiple?
  33. 33. Activity 01.02.03 Customize example 01.02.03 in Chrome Dev Tools. Change the color on the page to match the color clothing you're currently wearing. Increase the font size and change the font style to something with serifs. Change the distribution of spacing on the page to something you think is more readable. Make the first line of a paragraph indented.
  34. 34. Activity 01.02.04 Genesis 1—3 as HTML in project_work folder Write CSS to: Make each chapter display as a column Improve the typography Improve the colors Make sizing / spacing more readable Bonus: Use Media Queries to change layout based on screen width
  35. 35. Homework 01.02 Review: Read Web-Fundamentals-CSS.epub Get creative: Write CSS for Alice in Wonderland It should be readable on any screen size Headings, poems, and paragraphs should be discernible by a visual hierarchy Too much contrast in colors (text color vs. background color) is difficult to read, but so is too little. Tomorrow morning: compare CSS styling of Alice in Wonderland. What challenges did you face? What did you learn?

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