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EU Cultural Diplomacy in the MENA Region

Fostering regional and inter-regional cooperation

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EU Cultural Diplomacy in the MENA Region

  1. 1. EU Cultural Diplomacy in the MENA: fostering regional and inter-regional cooperation Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation Riccardo Trobbiani United Nations University Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies (UNU-CRIS) Rabat, 21 February 2018
  2. 2. Cultural Diplomacy Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation Traditionally: “soft power tool through which states and/or international organisations pursue foreign policy objectives.” Increasingly: “a policy area on its own right, which promotes quality of life, the arts, joint capacity building, economic growth and social cohesion by engaging citizens, both as producers and consumers of cultural activities.” Triandafyllidou and Szűcs, 2017
  3. 3. EU Cultural Diplomacy in the MENA Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation 1 Willingness -  Policy and law with a focus on regionalism and inter-regionalism -  Committed leaders 2 Capacity -  Engaged and skilled professionals -  Financial resources -  Institutions and agencies 3 Acceptance -  Committed citizenry -  Buy-in from regional leaders -  Cooperation with IOs, ROs, and other actors (adapted from Kingah et al, 2016)
  4. 4. Willingness: Cultural Diplomacy & the EU Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation •  “Towards an EU strategy for international cultural relations” (8 June 2016) •  EEAS Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council •  Terminology: “International cultural relations” (ICR) preferred to “Cultural diplomacy” •  EU “cultural superpower” •  Strong focus on MENA •  FP goals stay
  5. 5. 3 streams Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation - Intercultural dialogue -  Culture and creative sectors for development -  Cooperation in cultural heritage
  6. 6. 2 tracks Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  Transversal inclusion of culture in all external and development policies -  support for specific cultural ac6ons and events (EC 2007)
  7. 7. Culture as a Foreign Policy tool Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  Dual nature of culture (UNESCO 2005). Besides its intrinsic value: Security and Political objectives: Intercultural dialogue à peaceful relations/security community (Deutsch et al. 1957). Culture and creative sectors for development à development- security nexus, response to youth Cooperation in cultural heritage à shared Mediterranean space
  8. 8. Culture and Regional Cooperation Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation Common norms/principles and practices Deradicalisation, conflict prevention. Convergence of civilisations. (Adler and Crawford, 2002)
  9. 9. Regional Approach Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation Barcelona Process: Mediterranean as a ‘common area of peace, stability and prosperity‘. UfM. Lack of a clearly defined strategy/concept at the EU level but: -  EU external cultural action beyond mere showcasing -  Capacity building, exchanges and intercultural dialogue -  Regional and bilateral instruments -  Regional instruments fostering N-S and S-S cooperation -  “Variable geometry”
  10. 10. Euro-Med Cultural Relations Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  Regional: UfM third chapter -  Region to region: AMU/5+5, EU-GCC, EU-LAS -  Process political EC. Navracsics and Mogherini -  UfM: Ministers, Tunis Declaration and EuroMed Forum
  11. 11. 2020 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croa6a Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Greece Hungary France Italy Malta Portugal Spain Ireland Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Romania Slovakia Slovenia Sweden United Kingdom Algeria Mauritania Libya (UfM Obs) Morocco Tunisia Egypt Jordan Lebanon Pales6ne Syria EUROPEAN UNION ENP SOUTH 5+5 DIALOGUE ARAB MAGHREB UNION UNION FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN - ALF Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Monaco Montenegro Turkey Comoros Djibou6 Iraq Somalia Sudan Yemen Israel Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Oman Bahrain Kuwait ARAB LEAGUE (UfM Obs) UNESCO GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL Andorra Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Iceland Liechtenstein Macedonia Moldova Russia San Marino Serbia Switzerland Ukraine COE region-to-region
  12. 12. 2 Capacity Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  Training cultural operators and youth/Capacity building, networking -  UfM/ALF (15M 2015-2017) -  EU Programmes e.g. Euromed Heritage (17M), Euromed Audiovisual (11M), Euromed Youth (5M) - RMSU Open Neighborhood (18.2 M 2015-2019) (e.g. Media Hub ) Media and Culture (17 M 2014-2017) (Med Culture. Med Media à SR LAS) Med Film (5.4 M 2015- )
  13. 13. 2 Capacity Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  DCI (19.552 M) (Intra Africa Academic Mobility Scheme) -  Erasmus + in HE staff mobility, degree mobility, CB -  SALTO Youth Med -  ENI Cross Border Cooperation (209 M 2014-2020) -  Civil Society Facility CS – Regional Dialogue Hub (3M Sec). Young Mediterranean Voices (3.29 M) -  TAIEX Twinning -  Partnership Instrument (954.8 M) High Income Countries -  Opening of Creative Europe (1.460 M 2014-2020) -  EIDHR (132 M 2017) -  Bilateral
  14. 14. 2 Capacity Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  Institutions and bodies supporting EU Cultural action: -  Cultural Diplomacy Platform -  UfM: ALF, EMUNI, EM University of Fez. Other UfM fora. -  EuroMeSCo. Research institutes (Medea, IEMed…) -  ARELEN - Other CD Institutes
  15. 15. 2 Capacity Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  Institutions and bodies supporting EU Cultural action: -  Cultural Diplomacy Platform -  UfM: ALF, EMUNI, EM University of Fez. Other UfM fora. -  EuroMeSCo. Research institutes (Medea, IEMed…) -  ARELEN - Other CD Institutes
  16. 16. 3 Acceptance Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation Citizens: Fertile ground but easier with Cultural operators. Culture double-edged sword. Good perception EU but 1 little information 2 culture secondary demand Who benefits? (see ALF Report 2014 EU Neighborhood Barometer 2012-2014, SAHWA Youth Survey 2016)
  17. 17. 3 Acceptance Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation National and regional leaders: Political commitment in Association Agreements (+ Action Plans) and non-ENP arrangements UfM Dialogue. Tunis Declaration Participation to Programmes National governments still perceived as most important cultural players (EU Neighborhood Barometer)
  18. 18. 3 Acceptance Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation Beyond EU: IOs and ROs Council of Europe – South Programme II (Financed EU managed CoE, (2015-2017, 7.4 million Euro) UNESCO – Mediterranean Programme. Now NET-MED Youth. ALECSO – LAS – ECLASLO UN Agencies. UNIDO – UfM labelled ”Development of clusters in cultural and creative industries in the SM” 2013-2017 (5,6 M)
  19. 19. Challenges Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation EU side: -  Small topic in EU Global Strategy. -  ENP takes culture into little account (2015 review). Wrap up policy? -  Lack strategy. Short termed programmes. No regional CH. -  Failure to follow up on CS involvement. -  From regional to bilateral -  Lack donor coordination in cultural sector -  Rhetoric of soft power/showcasing? -  General ENP CS conundrum: stability vs. democratization. Ties with authoritarian governments.
  20. 20. Challenges Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation South Med: -  Shrinking space -  Lack of policy and strategy -  Little financial commitment to common programmes -  Lack of interest in South-South -  Divided in negotiation Common: -  Lack of effective common policy framework -  Donor-recipient relationship -  Political declarations in bi-regional relations not followed by action -  Politics (e.g. Israel/Creative Europe.). Last Euro-Med meeting 2008.
  21. 21. Cooptation: artists as diplomats? Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation “The failure to recognize that cultural actors do not pursue State interest-driven deliverables seems to signal a disjuncture from reality.” (Isar, 2010).
  22. 22. Conclusions Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  EU cultural action has potential to foster common norms/principles and practices -  EU and Med partners have created conditions for cultural cooperation. But it remains a marginal topic. -  True in Euro-Mediterranean Process, but insufficient resources -  Bi-regional: EU-GCC, EU-LAS, 5+5 only political commitment -  MENA fertile ground, but presents many challenges -  (Limited) response to Arab Springs needs to be carried forward. Lost momentum?
  23. 23. Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation Thank you rtrobbiani@cris.unu.edu
  24. 24. Sources Programme under Grant Agreement No 693799. 2020 The EL-CSID project receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation -  Adler, E. and Crawford, B. (2002) ‘Construc6ng a Mediterranean Region: A Cultural Approach’, paper presented for the conference ‘The Convergence of Civiliza6ons? Construc6ng a Mediterranean Region’, 6-7 June 2002, Arrábida Monastery, Fundação Oriente, Lisboa, Portugal -  Adler, E. and Crawford, B. (2004) ‘Norma6ve Power: The European Prac6ce of Region Building and the Case of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP)’, Ins6tute of European Studies Paper 040400, University of California, Berkeley, p. 20. -  Deutsch, K. et al. (1957) ‘Poli6cal Community and the North Atlan6c Area: Interna6onal Organiza6on in the Light of Historical Experience’, Princeton: Princeton University Press. -  EC (2016) ‘Towards an EU strategy for interna6onal cultural rela6ons’, JOIN(2016) 29 final, Brussels, 8/06/2016. -  Isar, Y. R. (2010) ‘Cultural Diplomacy: An Overplayed Hand?’ Public Diplomacy Magazine, hlp:// www.publicdiplomacymagazine.com/cultural-diplomacy-an-overplayed-hand/ -  Isar, Y. R. (2010) ‘Cultural Diplomacy: An Overplayed Hand?’ Public Diplomacy Magazine, hlp:// www.publicdiplomacymagazine.com/cultural-diplomacy-an-overplayed-hand/ -  Kingah, S., Amaya A. B. and Van Langenhove, L. (2016) ‘Requirements for Effec6ve European Union Leadership in Science and Cultural Diplomacy on (Inter) Regionalism in the South’, UNU-CRIS Working Paper W-2016/3 -  Preparatory Ac6on ‘Culture in EU External Rela6ons. Engaging the World: Towards Global Cultural Ci6zenship’, hlp://cultureinexternalrela6ons.eu/ -  Triandafyllidou, Anna and Tamás Szűcs (2017) “EU Cultural Diplomacy: Challenges and Opportuni6es”, EUI RSCAS PB Issue 2017/13 June 2017

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