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Creativity andBipolar Disorder: A review of the    evidence Sheri L. Johnson, Ph.D.    Greg Murray, Ph.D.Eric A. Youngstro...
Kay Jamison (1993).Touched with Fire.NY, NY: Free Press.
Authors believed to havemanic episodes (from Jamison, 1993)   Hans Christian Andersen      Joseph Conrad (SA)   Honore ...
Musicians and composersbelieved to have manic episodesAnton ArenskyHector Berlioz (SA)      Robert Schumann (H, SA)Geo...
Authors believed to havemood disordersWilliam Blake                 Sylvia Plath (H, S)George Gordon, Lord Byron     E...
Artists believed to havebipolar disorderPaul Gauguin (SA)Vincent van Gogh (H, S)Arshile Gorky (S)Edvard Munch (H)Geor...
Conclusion 1: Many famous artists have bipolar disorder.
Does thepattern hold  up with research?
Bipolar disorderDiagnosis                    Family                    history   Subsyndromal                        Other...
Creativity   Creative               Evidence of creativeaccomplishment             thought: divergent   eminence          ...
CreativityBipolarDisorder
Biographical studies offamous artistsStudy           Sample                     Rates of maniaLudwig, 1992    1005 recogni...
Problem   Biographies might be biased…
Iowa Writers Workshop           (Andreasen) Highly prestigious writers’ workshop  43% met criteria for some form of       ...
Bipolar Disorder relates tocreative eminence Problem: Eminence and fame might relate to social and  personal resources o...
What about samplesthat aren’t famous and eminent?Studies of artistic samplesAkiskal (2005)      Artists and those in non- ...
Conclusion 2. AMONG CREATIVE PEOPLE, MILD FORMS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER ARE OVER- REPRESENTED.
A different sampling approach AMONG THOSE WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER, HOW MANY ARE CREATIVE?
Preferences for ComplexStimuli—a marker of creativityStudy                    Sample                   FindingsSantosa et ...
Conclusion 3.  MANY PEOPLE  WITH SOME  FORM OF  BIPOLAR  DISORDER  PREFER  CREATIVE  STIMULI.
If people prefer complex stimuli,   DOES THAT GET   EXPRESSED IN   CREATIVE   ACCOMPLISHMENTS   AND PURSUITS?
Among those with BP,how common is it to be an artist?Tremblay et al. (2010)   13,700 participants in   Creativity ratings ...
Lifetime accomplishment(Richards et al, 1988)
Conclusion 4.  CREATIVE  PURSUITS AND  ACCOMPLISHMENT  ARE ENHANCED  AMONG THOSE  WITH MILDER  FORMS OF  BIPOLAR  DISORDER...
Self-Ratings of CreativityStudy                      Sample                       FindingsFurnham et al. (1988)      Stude...
Conclusion 5.   THOSE WITH   MILDER FORMS   OF BIPOLAR   DISORDER SEE   THEMSELVES   AS CREATIVE.
Creative persons?Creativity paradigm             Bipolar I   Bipolar    Family    Risk for                                ...
Question:WHAT ADVANTAGES OFBIPOLAR DISORDER FUELCREATIVITY?
Measures of DivergentThinkingStudy               Sample                 Findings                        Score             ...
Conclusion.CREATIVE THOUGHT IS OBSERVED INTHOSE AT RISK FOR THE DISORDER, BUTNOT WITHIN BIPOLAR I DISORDER– ATLEAST WITHOU...
Measures of Divergent ThinkingAnd ManiaStudy                 Sample                           + FindingsLevine et al., 199...
Measures of Divergent ThinkingAnd ManiaStudy                 Sample                           + Findings                 -...
Conclusion. FLUENCY IS HIGH DURING MANIA, …BUT SO ARE ERRORS.
Could milder mood changesbe more beneficial?   In interviews with eminent artists,       high moods, energy, and less ne...
Summary Substantial evidence: bipolar disorder is  related to being a “creative person.” Particularly true of milder for...
Summary Less is known about the “creative process”  that supports this pattern. Some early evidence suggests that mood  ...
Questions?Thoughts?
Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A review of the Evidence
Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A review of the Evidence
Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A review of the Evidence
Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A review of the Evidence
Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A review of the Evidence
Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A review of the Evidence
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Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A review of the Evidence

  1. 1. Creativity andBipolar Disorder: A review of the evidence Sheri L. Johnson, Ph.D. Greg Murray, Ph.D.Eric A. Youngstrom, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Kay Jamison (1993).Touched with Fire.NY, NY: Free Press.
  3. 3. Authors believed to havemanic episodes (from Jamison, 1993) Hans Christian Andersen  Joseph Conrad (SA) Honore de Balzac  Charles Dickens William Faulkner (H)  Isak Dinesen (SA) F. Scott Fitzgerald (H)  Ralph Waldo Emerson  Herman Melville Graham Greene  Eugene ONeill (H, SA) Ernest Hemingway (H, S)  Francis Parkman Hermann Hesse (H, SA)  John Ruskin (H) Henrik Ibsen  Mary Shelley  Robert Louis Stevenson Henry James  August Strindberg William James  Leo Tolstoy Samuel Clemens (Mark  Tennessee Williams (H) Twain)  Virginia Woolf (H, S)  Emile Zola
  4. 4. Musicians and composersbelieved to have manic episodesAnton ArenskyHector Berlioz (SA) Robert Schumann (H, SA)George Frederic Handel Peter TchaikovskyGustav Holst Irving Berlin (H)Charles Ives Noel CowardGustav Mahler Charles Mingus (H)Modest Mussorgsky Charles Parker (H, SA)Sergey Rachmaninoff Cole Porter (H) Kurt Cobain, musician (Nirvana) (S 1994)
  5. 5. Authors believed to havemood disordersWilliam Blake Sylvia Plath (H, S)George Gordon, Lord Byron Edgar Allan Poe (SA)Harley Coleridge Ezra Pound (H)Samuel Taylor Coleridge Laura Riding (SA)Emily Dickinson - more Theodore Roethke (H)T.S. Eliot (H) Percy Bysshe ShelleyVictor Hugo - More (SA)Samuel Johnson Alfred Lord tennysonJohn Keats - More Walt Whitman - MoreRobert Lowell (H)Edna St. Vincent Millay (H)
  6. 6. Artists believed to havebipolar disorderPaul Gauguin (SA)Vincent van Gogh (H, S)Arshile Gorky (S)Edvard Munch (H)Georgia OKeeffe (H)Jackson Pollock (H)Mark Rothko (S)
  7. 7. Conclusion 1: Many famous artists have bipolar disorder.
  8. 8. Does thepattern hold up with research?
  9. 9. Bipolar disorderDiagnosis Family history Subsyndromal Other related traits: symptoms mania positive affectivity and motivation
  10. 10. Creativity Creative Evidence of creativeaccomplishment thought: divergent eminence thinking and loose associations Engagement in creative activities
  11. 11. CreativityBipolarDisorder
  12. 12. Biographical studies offamous artistsStudy Sample Rates of maniaLudwig, 1992 1005 recognized artists, 8.2% had some history writers, actors of mania, compared to 2.8% of non-artistsWills, 2003 40 famous Jazz Bepop 28.5% some form of musicians mood disorderCzeizel, 2001 Famous Hungarian 67.5% had some form of poets bipolar disorderJamison, 1989 47 British 18th century 26% elated moods, 6.5% writers treated for maniaJuda, 1994 113 highly creative No diagnosable bipolar artists disorder, but 22% of offspring had bipolar spectrum traits
  13. 13. Problem Biographies might be biased…
  14. 14. Iowa Writers Workshop (Andreasen) Highly prestigious writers’ workshop 43% met criteria for some form of mania: 30% bipolar II disorder 13% bipolar I disorder
  15. 15. Bipolar Disorder relates tocreative eminence Problem: Eminence and fame might relate to social and personal resources other than creativity.
  16. 16. What about samplesthat aren’t famous and eminent?Studies of artistic samplesAkiskal (2005) Artists and those in non- 43% of artists endorsed artistic occupations cyclothymic traits, compared to about 10% of controlsColvin (1995) 40 conservatory GBI mania and students; 40 students in cyclothymia scores were non-creative areas higher among the conservatory students
  17. 17. Conclusion 2. AMONG CREATIVE PEOPLE, MILD FORMS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER ARE OVER- REPRESENTED.
  18. 18. A different sampling approach AMONG THOSE WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER, HOW MANY ARE CREATIVE?
  19. 19. Preferences for ComplexStimuli—a marker of creativityStudy Sample FindingsSantosa et al., 2007 Diagnosed with bipolar + disorderSimeonova, Chang, Diagnosed with bipolar +Strong, & Ketter, 2005 disorderStrong et al., Diagnosed with bipolar + disorderSimeonova, Chang, Offspring of those +Strong, & Ketter, 2005 diagnosed with bipolar disorderRawlings & Georgiou, Students at risk for +2004 maniaSchuldberg, 2001 Students at risk for + mania
  20. 20. Conclusion 3. MANY PEOPLE WITH SOME FORM OF BIPOLAR DISORDER PREFER CREATIVE STIMULI.
  21. 21. If people prefer complex stimuli, DOES THAT GET EXPRESSED IN CREATIVE ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PURSUITS?
  22. 22. Among those with BP,how common is it to be an artist?Tremblay et al. (2010) 13,700 participants in Creativity ratings of the ECA study (84 with occupations were higher DSM-IIIR diagnosis of among those with bipolar I disorder) bipolar disorder(4.54) than those without bipolar disorder (3.07)
  23. 23. Lifetime accomplishment(Richards et al, 1988)
  24. 24. Conclusion 4. CREATIVE PURSUITS AND ACCOMPLISHMENT ARE ENHANCED AMONG THOSE WITH MILDER FORMS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER. Carrie McGrath
  25. 25. Self-Ratings of CreativityStudy Sample FindingsFurnham et al. (1988) Students at risk for mania +Schuldberg, 2001 Students at risk for mania +Shapiro & Weisberg, 1999 Students at risk for mania +Frantom et al., 1999 Risk for mania among No effect graduate students and faculty studying artFrantom et al., 1999, Family history of mania +second analysisSantosa et al., 2007 People diagnosed with No effect bipolar disorder
  26. 26. Conclusion 5. THOSE WITH MILDER FORMS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER SEE THEMSELVES AS CREATIVE.
  27. 27. Creative persons?Creativity paradigm Bipolar I Bipolar Family Risk for disorder spectrum members maniaBiographical studies of + + +eminenceInterview studies of famously + + +creative personsLifetime creative - + +accomplishmentOccupational choice + + +Preference for complex + + + +(creative) stimuli People with bipolar disorder are to be likely to be creative. Particularly true for milder and at-risk variants.
  28. 28. Question:WHAT ADVANTAGES OFBIPOLAR DISORDER FUELCREATIVITY?
  29. 29. Measures of DivergentThinkingStudy Sample Findings Score CardFurnham et al., Students at risk for Higher scores on the +2008 mania Unusual Uses TestSantosa et al., Diagnosed with No differences from controls -2007 bipolar disorder on the Torrance verbal or nonverbal creativity subtestsDickstein et al., Diagnosed with Poor performance on -2007 bipolar disorder attentional set-shiftingPine et al. Children diagnosed Poor performance on - with bipolar attentional set-shifting disorder
  30. 30. Conclusion.CREATIVE THOUGHT IS OBSERVED INTHOSE AT RISK FOR THE DISORDER, BUTNOT WITHIN BIPOLAR I DISORDER– ATLEAST WITHOUT CONSIDERING MOOD.
  31. 31. Measures of Divergent ThinkingAnd ManiaStudy Sample + FindingsLevine et al., 1996 11 persons hospitalized for Persons who were manic mania compared to groups with were more fluent– they schizophrenia, schizoaffective provided 25 word disorder, depression, and associations compared to healthy controls 12 in the other groupsHenry et al., 1971 Persons with bipolar disorder Fluency (word tested during manic and associations) tripled asymptomatic periods during maniaKocsis et al., 1993 Persons with bipolar disorder Fluency was higher when before and after lithium people stopped lithium discontinuationShaw et al., 1997 Persons with bipolar disorder Fluency was higher when before and after lithium people stopped lithium discontinuationAndreasen & Persons hospitalized for mania Creative and manicPowers, 1975 compared to those with persons had high scores schizophrenia, and a highly on a conceptual over- creative control sample inclusiveness scale
  32. 32. Measures of Divergent ThinkingAnd ManiaStudy Sample + Findings - FindingsLevine et al., 1996 11 persons hospitalized for Persons who were manic mania compared to groups with were more fluent– they schizophrenia, schizoaffective provided 25 word disorder, depression, and associations compared to healthy controls 12 in the other groupsHenry et al., 1971 Persons with bipolar disorder Fluency (word The greater fluency was tested during manic and associations) tripled entirely due to “incorrect” asymptomatic periods during mania associationsKocsis et al., 1993 Persons with bipolar disorder Fluency was higher when before and after lithium people stopped lithium discontinuationShaw et al., 1997 Persons with bipolar disorder Fluency was higher when before and after lithium people stopped lithium discontinuationAndreasen & Persons hospitalized for mania Creative and manic The broadPowers, 1975 compared to those with persons had high scores categorizations made by schizophrenia, and a highly on a conceptual over- the bipolar group were creative control sample inclusiveness scale largely errors.
  33. 33. Conclusion. FLUENCY IS HIGH DURING MANIA, …BUT SO ARE ERRORS.
  34. 34. Could milder mood changesbe more beneficial? In interviews with eminent artists,  high moods, energy, and less need for sleep contribute to mania,  other symptoms were not seen as helpful  Jamison (1989) Energy, enthusiasm, and less need for sleep on the GBI correlate with self-rated creativity Other symptoms did not  Shapiro & Weisberg (1999)
  35. 35. Summary Substantial evidence: bipolar disorder is related to being a “creative person.” Particularly true of milder forms of bipolar disorder, and even vulnerability to the disorder.
  36. 36. Summary Less is known about the “creative process” that supports this pattern. Some early evidence suggests that mood plays a role. Moods that are too high might interfere with creative accomplishments. Happiness might bolster fluency and divergent thinking.
  37. 37. Questions?Thoughts?
  • HazelTalaboc

    Jul. 26, 2017

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