Week2 lecture

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Comms 239 lecture (Winter 2012)

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  • Bradford, William, 1663–1752, British pioneer printer in the American colonies. Born in Leicestershire, England, he served an apprenticeship under a London printer before emigrating in 1685 to Philadelphia, where he set up the first press. He added a bookstore in 1688 and was in 1690 one of the founders of the first paper mill in the colonies. He was arrested for printing a pamphlet critical of the Quaker government; his trial, at which no verdict was reached, was probably the first in the United States involving freedom of the press. Bradford moved (c.1693) to New York City where he became royal printer and issued some 400 items in the next 50 years, including the first American Book of Common Prayer (1710), some of the earliest of American almanacs and many pamphlets and political writings. In 1725 he began publication of the royalist New York Gazette, the first New York newspaper. Many of his descendants, including Andrew Bradford and William Bradford, became printers.\n
  • September 25, 1690, Boston\nFour sheets, size of modern-day notepaper\nHouse fires, suicide, smallpox epidemic\nIndians who “barbarously Butcher’d” forty white settlers\nimproprieties within French Royal Court.\nAuthorities shut it down after 4 days:\n“Doubtful and uncertain reports.”\ncolonial policy had become one of conciliation with natives \nHarris fled to England...ended his days hawking quack medicines\n
  • Ben Franklin was apprentice\n
  • Cartoon: 1754, start of French and Indian Wars (a plea for colonial unity)\n
  • Published with financial support of Lewis Morris\nZenger not literate in English\nCosby administration most corrupt of colonial goverments\nCosby heavy drinker, partier...would offer patronage to those who offered their wives or daughters for sexual favors\nCosby replaces Morris with DeLauncey -- a young man whose father is friends with Cosby. Unpopular move.\n1734: Zenger publishes article criticizing Cosby for not defending coastline from pirates.\nDon’t know if he even understood what he was printing.\n\n
  • Cosby orders Zenger’s lawyers disbarred.\nComes to attention of Benjamin Franklin... asked to find Philadelphia lawyer too prestigious to be disbarred: Andrew Hamilton.\nHamilton ignores the law.\nHuge symbolic victory -- not a precedent.\nZenger continues publishing... demonstrates opposition to England.\n
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  • Premise that money was needed to protect the colonies from French and Indian attack.\nAmong other things, taxed paper. \nIncreased cost by 50 percent.\nMany either had to stop printing or charge more (when many wouldn’t pay it)\n
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  • • Accused Jefferson of being a robber, liar, perjurer\n• Croswell is defended by Alexander Hamilton... uses same defense he used for Zenger...\n• This time, he loses... Jury rules their argument was outside the law (which it was).\n• Crosswell pays a fine.\n• Significance is the argument had great appeal and shortly afterward the NY state legislature becomes first in America to pass legislation accepting truth as a defense.\n
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  • Week2 lecture

    1. 1. Week 2Historical Perspectives
    2. 2. Whatwill we cover today?
    3. 3. 1. Origins of & challenges to a free press
    4. 4. 1. Origins of & challenges to a free press2. Financing and developing a free press
    5. 5. 1. Origins of & challenges to a free press2. Financing and developing a free press3. Sensationalizing the press
    6. 6. 1. Origins of & challenges to a free press2. Financing and developing a free press3. Sensationalizing the press4. Threats to and adjustments by the press
    7. 7. 1. Origins of & challenges to a free press2. Financing and developing a free press3. Sensationalizing the press4. Threats to and adjustments by the press5. Pedagogy
    8. 8. Origins of& challenges to a free press
    9. 9. Printingz z Long history Spread of printing = agent for change
    10. 10. z z z z News Newspapers did not create news News becomes a commodity British monarch & prior restraint First newspaper (March 11, 1702 in London) Daily Courant
    11. 11. State of free expressionz “We have not free schools nor printing...For learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world; and printing has divulged them and libels against government. God keep us from both.” – Williams Berkeley, Virginia Governor, 1671
    12. 12. William Bradford z z Philadelphia 1685 Arrested for printing pamphlet critical of Quaker government z Moved to New York 1693
    13. 13. Colonial Press z Benjamin Harris: Public Occurrences, Both Forreign and Domestick z Reported that the French king had ...well.. “hooked up” with his daughter-in-law, the princess.
    14. 14. Colonial Press z Benjamin Harris: Public Occurrences, Both Forreign and Domestick z Reported that the French king had ...well.. “hooked up” with his daughter-in-law, the princess.
    15. 15. Colonial Pressz James Franklin: New England Courantz First North American newspaper to supply public with what they liked & neededz Without authority (established editorial independence)
    16. 16. Colonial Pressz Benjamin Franklin: Pennsylvania Gazettez Anonymous essays (“Busy-Body Papers”)z z First cartoon “An Apology For Printers” (1731) Printers are educated in the Belief, that when Men differ in Opinion, both Sides ought equa&y to have the Advantage of being heard by the Publick; and that when Truth and Error have fair Play, the former is always an overmatch for the latter.
    17. 17. Colonial Pressz Benjamin Franklin: Pennsylvania Gazettez Anonymous essays (“Busy-Body Papers”)z z First cartoon “An Apology For Printers” (1731) Printers are educated in the Belief, that when Men differ in Opinion, both Sides ought equa&y to have the Advantage of being heard by the Publick; and that when Truth and Error have fair Play, the former is always an overmatch for the latter.
    18. 18. Colonial Press z John Peter Zenger, New York Weekly Journal z New York gov. Wm. Cosby replaces Lewis Morris as chief justice; Zenger publishes an article critical of Cosby – probably written by Morris Cosby Morris
    19. 19. Colonial Pressz Seditious libel – greater the truth, the greater the libelz Andrew Hamilton argued inherent right to write or speak the truth
    20. 20. z Revolutionary Press The Stamp Act of 1765z z z Increased cost Censorship Repealed after one year
    21. 21. Revolutionary Pressz Stamp act leads to politicization of pressz Colonial Press was mostly politically neutral, religious in naturez Tombstone issue
    22. 22. Philosophical Influencesz Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
    23. 23. Philosophical Influencesz John Milton’s Areopagitica
    24. 24. Philosophical Influencesz John Locke: Individual’s right to choose their government
    25. 25. Bill of Rights - 1791zAnti-Federalistsinsist upon itzFirst Amendmentz Nine of 13 states already had such a provision
    26. 26. Bill of Rights - 1791zAnti-Federalistsinsist upon itzFirst Amendmentz Nine of 13 states already had such a provision
    27. 27. Bill of Rights - 1791
    28. 28. Bill of Rights - 1791
    29. 29. Bill of Rights - 1791 Congress sha& make no law respecting anestablishment of religion, or prohibiting the ee exercise therof; or abridging the eedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble,and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances
    30. 30. Alien & Sedition Acts 1798zExtended naturalization: 5 to14 yearszPresident could deport anymale over age of 14 viewed tobe a threat and were subjectsof countries at war with U.S.zIllegal to conspire to opposemeasures of the government(write, utter, publish, etc.)
    31. 31. Benjamin Franklin Bache z Philadelphia Aurora & General Advertiser zz Anti-Federalist Criticized George Washington, John Adams z Indicted the day it became law – $4,000 zbail Died of yellow fever before trial
    32. 32. Benjamin Franklin Bache z Philadelphia Aurora & General Advertiser zz Anti-Federalist Criticized George Washington, John Adams z Indicted the day it became law – $4,000 zbail Died of yellow fever before trial
    33. 33. Jefferson on Free Pressz “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate for a moment to prefer the latter.”(In a letter to Colonel Edward Carrington, 16 January 1787)
    34. 34. Jefferson on Free Pressz “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate for a moment to prefer the latter.”(In a letter to Colonel Edward Carrington, 16 January 1787)
    35. 35. Harry Croswellzz W (Federalist) asp Charged with seditious libel in 1804z Used Zenger defense, but lostzNevertheless, argument has great appeal & leads to New York passing the country’s first law to accept truth as a defense
    36. 36. Comstock Law 1873• Creates New York Society for the Suppression of Vice• Convinces Congress to pass Comstock Law, outlawing delivery of “obscene and lascivious” materials Anthony Comstock
    37. 37. Espionage Act 1917 • Crime to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces or to promote success of enemy • Punishable by death or 30 years in prison • Sedition Act 1918 illegal to speakEugene Debs out against the government
    38. 38. World War II Censorship • War Powers Act includes provisions for censorship • Executive order establishes Office of Censorship Byron Price • Information of value to enemy • Voluntary within the country • Censors employed in theater
    39. 39. George Strock, LIFE
    40. 40. Office of War InformationOriginally Coordinator ofInformationElmer Davis
    41. 41. Paul White - CBS News • 1933 - First radio network news operation • Bureaus in New York, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles • Newspaper stringers
    42. 42. Edward R. Murrow
    43. 43. Post-War• Fred Friendly• 1950-52 “Hear it Now”• 1952 “See It Now” begins• Sponsor - Alcoa• “Christmas in Korea”• “High Murrow”
    44. 44. Post-War• Fred Friendly• 1950-52 “Hear it Now”• 1952 “See It Now” begins• Sponsor - Alcoa• “Christmas in Korea”• “High Murrow”
    45. 45. Person to Person• Celebrity interviews• Rehearsed, live look• “Low Murrow”
    46. 46. McCarthyism• Senator Joseph McCarthy (R) Wisconsin• Claimed Eisenhower government infiltrated by Communists• Claims made at height of “Red Scare” and blacklisting
    47. 47. Milo Radulovich• Air Force meteorologist• Ordered to sever ties with his father
    48. 48. William S. Paley

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