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History 239

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History overview for Comms 239, Principles of Journalism

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History 239

  1. 1. Historical Overview Comms 239: Principles of Journalism
  2. 2. Penny Press Benjamin Day New York Sun Journalism History
  3. 3. Yellow Journalism
  4. 4. Great Newspaper Editors Benjamin Day Henry Raymond New York Sun New-York Times James Gordon Bennett Joseph Pulitzer New York Herald New York World Horace Greeley Wm. Randolph Hearst New York Tribune New York Journal Journalism History
  5. 5. PhotojournalismThe emergence of a new journalism
  6. 6. Milestones Leica: mass produced in 1924• Half-tone photographic printing• Gelatin-based film• Flashbulbs• Smaller, mass-produced cameras
  7. 7. Photojournalism• Photographers no longer need permission or cooperation of subjects• Photographs more candid, intimate, immediate, episodic• Considered “objective” documents• News content in their own right, not just illustrations ancillary to the text
  8. 8. LIFE Magazine• Founded in 1936 by Henry Luce• Instant success• Two million circulation by 1938• 22 million readers by 1944
  9. 9. Robert Capa• Born 1913 in Budapest, Hungary as Andre Friedman• Escapes anti-semitism by moving to Berlin, takes up photography• Shows promise by photographing Leon Trotsky• Creates persona• Spanish Civil War: Moment of Death
  10. 10. Walter CronkiteErnie Pyle Andy Rooney
  11. 11. Edward R. Murrow – “The Murrow Boys”Cecil Brown Richard C. HotteletWinston Burdett Larry LeSueurCharles Collingwood Eric Sevareid Mary Marvin BreckinridgeWilliam Downs William L. ShirerThomas Grandin Howard K. Smith
  12. 12. “I don’t make the infantryman look noble, because he couldn’t look noble even if he tried. Still there is a certain nobility and dignity in combat soldiers... With dirt in their ears ... They wish to hell they were someplace else ...Bill Mauldin They wish to hell the mud“Willie & Joe” was dry and they wish to hell their coffee was hot.”
  13. 13. “I don’t make the infantryman look noble, because he couldn’t look noble even if he tried. Still there is a certain nobility and dignity in combat soldiers... With dirt in their ears ... They wish to hell they were someplace else ...Bill Mauldin They wish to hell the mud“Willie & Joe” was dry and they wish to hell their coffee was hot.”
  14. 14. Voice by wireAlexander Graham Bell — 1876
  15. 15. Wireless James Clerk Maxwell• Electromagnetic radiation theorized 1864 Heinrich Hertz• Transmission of radio waves 1887 Guglielmo Marconi• First wireless transmission 1895• Transatlantic wireless transmission 1901
  16. 16. Broadcasting Reginald Fessenden• Wireless voice transmission 1906 Lee deForest• Audion Tube 1864• Broadcasts from Eiffel Tower 1908 Edwin Howard Armstrong• Regenerative Circuit 1913
  17. 17. Radio Networks US Congress • Establishes the Federal Radio Commission 1927 David Sarnoff • Suggests Radio Music Box 1916 • Establishes NBC 1926 William Paley • Columbia Broadcast System 1928
  18. 18. NBC 1921AT&T radio networkWEAF flagship station
  19. 19. NBC 1921 1923AT&T radio network GE + Westinghouse = RCAWEAF flagship station WJZ flagship station
  20. 20. NBC 1921 1923AT&T radio network GE + Westinghouse = RCAWEAF flagship station WJZ flagship station 1926 AT&T sells to RCA Becomes NBC
  21. 21. NBC 1921 1923AT&T radio network GE + Westinghouse = RCAWEAF flagship station WJZ flagship station 1926 AT&T sells to RCA Becomes NBC NBC NBCRed Network Blue Network
  22. 22. ABC• FCC declares NBC a monopoly 1940• NBC Blue becomes ABC in 1945
  23. 23. Radio News• NBC establishes hard newscasts 1930• CBS’s Paul White establishes first network news operation 1933 RCA 44-BX
  24. 24. Radio-Press War • 1922 - A.P. says copy is not for radio • 1933 - “Biltmore Agreement” • Two, five-minute newscasts per day (after 9:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.) • Networks respond with commentaryUPI “clacker” • 1939 - A.P. lifts ban
  25. 25. Broadcast CommentatorsFloyd Gibbons Walter Winchell Lowell Thomas
  26. 26. Hindenburg DisasterLakehurst, NJ – May 6, 1937• Reported by Herb Morrison, WLS Chicago• Recorded on “disc cutter”• Played in Chicago next day• First recorded news on NBC
  27. 27. Mechanical Television John Logie Baird
  28. 28. Philo T. Farnsworth • Born in Beaver, Utah (1906) • Raised in Idaho • Attended BYU (1923-1924) • Invented first all-electronic television (1926)
  29. 29. High School Drawing (1921) Research Notes (1927)
  30. 30. Dissector Tube
  31. 31. Cathode Ray Tube
  32. 32. RCAVladimir Zworykin David Sarnoff
  33. 33. Edward R. Murrow
  34. 34. See It Now“This instrument can teach, it canilluminate, and yes it can inspire.But it can do so only to the extentthat humans are determined to useit to those ends. Otherwise it isnothing but wires and lights in abox.” RTNDA Convention, Chicago, October 15, 1958
  35. 35. Douglas Edwards
  36. 36. John Cameron Swayze
  37. 37. Huntley & Brinkley
  38. 38. Chancellor & Brokaw
  39. 39. Walter Cronkite
  40. 40. Walter Cronkite
  41. 41. Walter Cronkite
  42. 42. 30 Minutes• CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite - September 3, 1963• NBC News “Huntley-Brinkley Report” - September 9, 1963• ABC News with Peter Jennings - January 1965
  43. 43. Elmer Lower &the “Almost Broadcasting Corporation”
  44. 44. The JFK Assassination Television News Comes of Age
  45. 45. BULLETIN
  46. 46. First TV bulletins
  47. 47. Live for 56 hours over 4 days
  48. 48. Vietnam
  49. 49. Leading up to Watergate • Nixon runs on Law and Order platform and promise of “secret plan” to get out of Vietnam • Secret bombing campaign against neutral Cambodia • Congress twice rejects Nixon’s nominations to Supreme Court
  50. 50. Leading up to Watergate• U.S. openly invades Cambodia, leading to massive protests• Four students killed at Kent State• News leaks
  51. 51. Wiretapping• June 1970: Nixon agrees to plan for White House, FBI, and CIA to wiretap, commit burglaries and (if necessary) other crimes, in the interest of providing intelligence on persons disloyal to the administration• J. Edgar Hoover refuses to cooperate• Nixon authorizes wiretaps on 4 newsmen and 13 government officials
  52. 52. Pentagon Papers • MacNamara orders a history of U.S. involvement in Indochina • Leaked by Daniel Ellsberg • Published in June 1971 by New York Times • Government sues for prior restraint • Other papers, including Washington Post, also publish
  53. 53. Leaks & Dirty Tricks• Pentagon Papers a turning point• Nixon forms a surveillance team to plug leaks on classified information• “The Plumbers”• “Enemies List”• “Dirty tricks” campaign
  54. 54. Campaign against journalists• Pat Buchanan suggests deliberate campaign to attack networks as small group of liberal elites• Speech given by Vice President Spiro Agnew • “Nattering nabobs of Spiro Agnew, the only vice president to resign while under criminal investigation negativism”
  55. 55. Watergate Break-in • June 17, 1972: Democratic National Committee in the Watergate complex • Five “plumbers” planting listening devices are caught by Washington, D.C. policeWatergate complex – Washington, D.C. • Operation financed by illegal contributions to CREEP
  56. 56. Watergate Break-in• Taping system reveals president participated in coverup
  57. 57. Woodward & Bernstein
  58. 58. End of an era• Brokaw - NBC anchor retired Nov. 2004• Rather - CBS anchor forced out March 2005• Jennings - ABC anchor dies August 2005

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