Ch16_Atmosphere_students

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Ch16_Atmosphere_students

  1. 1. CH. 16 – THE ATMOSPHERE<br />
  2. 2. Meteorology<br />Study of atmosphere & its dynamic processes (weather)<br />Weather – state of atmosphere at a given place for short period of time<br />
  3. 3. Meteorology<br />Climate - compilation of weather over time for a region<br /> - changes gradually<br />Ex: Ice Age vs. present<br /> Global warming<br />
  4. 4. Elements of Weather<br />1) <br />2) <br />3) <br />4) <br />5) <br />6) <br />
  5. 5. Heating the Atmosphere<br />Radiation – energy transmitted through space<br />Different types of energy travel at different wavelengths<br />
  6. 6. Heating the Atmosphere<br />All objects give off radiation:<br />Hotter object = shorter wavelength<br />Cooler object = longer wavelength<br />
  7. 7. Solar & terrestrial wavelengths<br />
  8. 8. Steps for heating the atmosphere:<br />1) Short wavelength solar radiation passes through atmosphere (uv & visible range)<br />2) Earth’s surface absorbs solar radiation & heats up<br />
  9. 9. Steps for heating the atmosphere:<br />3) Earth emits infrared radiation<br />4) CO2 & H2O vapor absorb infrared radiation<br /> - “selective absorbers”<br />
  10. 10. Earth-Sun Relations<br />Causes annual variations in seasons at a given latitude<br />Rotation = Earth spins on axis<br />Revolution = Earth’s elliptical orbit around sun<br />
  11. 11. Earth’s axis:<br />Tilted 23 ½ o off vertical to plane of the ecliptic<br />- points to North Star<br />Most intense sunlight = solar rays striking Earth’s surface at 90o<br />
  12. 12. Earth-Sun Relations<br />Know for each season: <br />1) date <br />2) location of vertical rays of sun<br />3) nickname <br />
  13. 13. Controls of Temperature<br />1) Latitude controls: <br /> a) Intensity = sun angle<br /> Most intense = 90o<br /> Lower sun angles = less intense<br />
  14. 14. Latitude<br />b) Amount = length of daylight hours<br />At night, Earth emits radiation w/o collecting anymore<br />- coolest temp. = _____________<br />
  15. 15. Latitude<br />Summer vs. Winter<br />More daylight hours = Earth builds up surplus of energy (hot temp’s)<br />Less daylight hours = Earth loses more energy than it gains (cold temp’s)<br />
  16. 16. Latitude<br />Affects annual temperature range<br />i) Closer to equator = ____ annual temp. range<br />ii) Closer to poles = _____ annual temp. range<br />Why?<br />
  17. 17. Temperature Range<br />Difference between high & low temperatures<br />- daily, monthly, annual <br />
  18. 18. Controls of Temperature<br />2) Amount of water vapor<br />Water vapor acts as a “blanket”<br /><ul><li>critical to daily temperature range</li></li></ul><li>Arid vs. Humid Regions<br />Arid regions:<br />Daily temp. range is__________<br />Humid regions:<br />Daily temp. range is __________<br />
  19. 19. Cloudy vs. Clear Nights<br />Cloudy night:<br />Daily temp. range is__________<br />Clear night:<br />Daily temp. range is __________<br />
  20. 20. Controls of Temperature<br />3) Land vs. water<br />____ heats more in summer<br />Land cools more in winter<br />Land has more variable annual temperature range than water<br />
  21. 21. Controls of Temperature<br />4) Elevation – land height above sea level<br />Cooler temp’s at higher elevations b/c:<br />a) Further from main heat source (“radiator”) = Earth’s surface<br />
  22. 22. Elevation<br />b) Less water vapor available in atmosphere<br /> Why?<br />
  23. 23. Controls of Temperature<br />5) Geographic Position<br />- prevailing westerly wind directions between 30o & 60o latitude<br /><ul><li>both hemispheres!</li></ul>Ex: East Coast vs. West Coast<br />
  24. 24. U.S. map<br />
  25. 25. Geographic Position<br />“Landlocked” cities have _______ annual temp. ranges<br />Coastal cities have ______ annual temp. ranges<br />
  26. 26. Global Temperature Distribution<br />Figures 16.32 & 16.33<br />Isotherm = line connecting points of equal temp’s<br />NOTE:<br />1) Isotherms run __________<br /> Why?<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Global Temperature Distribution<br />2) Isotherm pattern is more ______ in Northern Hemisphere<br /> Why?<br />
  30. 30. Global Temperature Distribution<br />3) Ocean surface currents alter general east-west trend of isotherms<br />“Gyre” = circular pattern of ocean currents<br />
  31. 31. Ocean circulation<br />
  32. 32. Ocean Circulation<br />Poleward-moving currents are _______<br />Equatorward-moving currents are _______<br />Ex: Gulf Stream vs. California Current<br />
  33. 33. Ocean Circulation<br />Affects temperature mean at similar latitudes<br />Ex: England vs. Newfoundland<br />
  34. 34. January temp’s<br />

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