CH. 2 - MINERALS
MINERALSBasic building block of rocks>4,000 minerals identifiedMineral Definition (requirements):1) Solid2) Naturally Occu...
Mineral Definition3) Inorganic – no biologic origin4) Definite Chemical CompositionEx: Halite =     Quartz =     Diamond =...
Mineral Definition5) Ordered Crystalline StructureEx: Halite (NaCl)
Ordered Crystalline StructureDiamond = high pressure- complex bonding of carbon  atomsGraphite = low pressure  - carbon at...
Diamond structure
Graphite structure
Mineral Definition1. Solid2. Naturally Occurring3. Inorganic4. Definite Chemical Composition5. Ordered Crystalline Structure
Structure of Minerals1) Atom – smallest building block of   an elementComposed of atomic particles    - protons (+)   - ne...
Periodic Table of the Elements(p. 31)
Balanced AtomsAtomic Number = number of  protons- defines which element atom  belongs toAtomic Mass = sum of protons &    ...
Balanced AtomsNumber of electrons = number of  protonsRule:1st energy level = 2 electrons maxAll other energy levels = 8  ...
Atomic Structure
Balanced AtomsValence electrons = electrons in outermost energy levelAtoms bond b/c they want full outer shell of electrons
Types of Bonding1) Ionic BondingIon = atom with an electrical   charge- caused by losing or gaining   electrons
Ionic BondingAtoms bond b/c opposites attract (like magnets)Ex: Halite (NaCl)
Types of Bonding2) Covalent Bonding- atoms share valence electrons- outer energy levels overlapEx: Oxygen (O2)
Oxygen
Structure of Minerals2) Element – composed entirely of same kind of atoms - all atoms have same number of  ___________92 n...
ElementSome minerals are elements:Ex: Native Copper    Gold    Sulfur    Graphite
Structure of Minerals3) Compound – combination of  two or more elements- characteristics are different than  individual el...
CompoundMost minerals are compounds:   Quartz = SiO2   Galena = PbS (lead sulfide)   Hematite = Fe2O3 (iron               ...
Chemical Composition of Crust98.3% of crust composed of 8  elements (Figure 2.21)Other 84 elements share 1.7% of  remainin...
Crustal Composition
Mineral Groups1) Silicate Group - 90% of all   minerals   Basic building block is the silica   tetrahedron SiO44-
Silica tetrahedron (SiO44-)Negative charge bonds with positive ionsOther abundant elements of crust are positive ions
Mineral Groups2) Nonsilicate GroupIncludes:a) rock-forming minerals Ex: calcite
Nonsilicate Groupb) native elements    Ex: sulfur, copper, goldc) Metal ores  Ex: galena (PbS)      magnetite (Fe3O4)
RocksAggregate of minerals (mixture)Some rx are impure quantities of the same mineral Ex: Limestone = calcite       (rock)...
RocksMost rx are composed of several mineralsEx: Granite = quartz, feldspar,     (rock)         hornblende                ...
Granite & its minerals
3 groups of rocks1)2)3)
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02_minerals_students_revised

  1. 1. CH. 2 - MINERALS
  2. 2. MINERALSBasic building block of rocks>4,000 minerals identifiedMineral Definition (requirements):1) Solid2) Naturally Occurring
  3. 3. Mineral Definition3) Inorganic – no biologic origin4) Definite Chemical CompositionEx: Halite = Quartz = Diamond = Graphite =
  4. 4. Mineral Definition5) Ordered Crystalline StructureEx: Halite (NaCl)
  5. 5. Ordered Crystalline StructureDiamond = high pressure- complex bonding of carbon atomsGraphite = low pressure - carbon atoms bond in sheets
  6. 6. Diamond structure
  7. 7. Graphite structure
  8. 8. Mineral Definition1. Solid2. Naturally Occurring3. Inorganic4. Definite Chemical Composition5. Ordered Crystalline Structure
  9. 9. Structure of Minerals1) Atom – smallest building block of an elementComposed of atomic particles - protons (+) - neutrons - electrons (-)
  10. 10. Periodic Table of the Elements(p. 31)
  11. 11. Balanced AtomsAtomic Number = number of protons- defines which element atom belongs toAtomic Mass = sum of protons & neutrons
  12. 12. Balanced AtomsNumber of electrons = number of protonsRule:1st energy level = 2 electrons maxAll other energy levels = 8 electrons max
  13. 13. Atomic Structure
  14. 14. Balanced AtomsValence electrons = electrons in outermost energy levelAtoms bond b/c they want full outer shell of electrons
  15. 15. Types of Bonding1) Ionic BondingIon = atom with an electrical charge- caused by losing or gaining electrons
  16. 16. Ionic BondingAtoms bond b/c opposites attract (like magnets)Ex: Halite (NaCl)
  17. 17. Types of Bonding2) Covalent Bonding- atoms share valence electrons- outer energy levels overlapEx: Oxygen (O2)
  18. 18. Oxygen
  19. 19. Structure of Minerals2) Element – composed entirely of same kind of atoms - all atoms have same number of ___________92 naturally occurring elements
  20. 20. ElementSome minerals are elements:Ex: Native Copper Gold Sulfur Graphite
  21. 21. Structure of Minerals3) Compound – combination of two or more elements- characteristics are different than individual elements Ex: Halite NaCl
  22. 22. CompoundMost minerals are compounds: Quartz = SiO2 Galena = PbS (lead sulfide) Hematite = Fe2O3 (iron oxide)
  23. 23. Chemical Composition of Crust98.3% of crust composed of 8 elements (Figure 2.21)Other 84 elements share 1.7% of remaining crust- includes
  24. 24. Crustal Composition
  25. 25. Mineral Groups1) Silicate Group - 90% of all minerals Basic building block is the silica tetrahedron SiO44-
  26. 26. Silica tetrahedron (SiO44-)Negative charge bonds with positive ionsOther abundant elements of crust are positive ions
  27. 27. Mineral Groups2) Nonsilicate GroupIncludes:a) rock-forming minerals Ex: calcite
  28. 28. Nonsilicate Groupb) native elements Ex: sulfur, copper, goldc) Metal ores Ex: galena (PbS) magnetite (Fe3O4)
  29. 29. RocksAggregate of minerals (mixture)Some rx are impure quantities of the same mineral Ex: Limestone = calcite (rock) (mineral)
  30. 30. RocksMost rx are composed of several mineralsEx: Granite = quartz, feldspar, (rock) hornblende (minerals)
  31. 31. Granite & its minerals
  32. 32. 3 groups of rocks1)2)3)

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