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  1. 1. DNA and RNAhttp://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/mbi1440.htm http://www.wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/mRNA.gif
  2. 2. GENETIC MATERIALIn the middle of the 1900’s scientists were asking questions about genes.What is a gene made of?How do genes work?How do genes determine characteristics of organisms?
  3. 3. DO PROTEINS CARRY THE GENETIC CODE?At the time most scientists believed proteinsthat _________ had to be themolecules that made up genes.There were so many different kindsproteins and DNA seemed to be toomonotonous . . . repeating the same 4 ___ subunits.
  4. 4. SEE GRIFFITH’s EXPERIMENT1928 – Frederick Griffith looked atpneumonia bacteria trying tofigure out what made people dieS (SMOOTH) strain R (Rough) strain- killed mice -mice lived Images from: http://microvet.arizona.edu/Courses/vsc610/mic205/griffith.jpg
  5. 5. If he heated the LETHAL strain first _______________ . . . mice lived.The heat killed bacteria were no longerLETHAL. Images from: http://microvet.arizona.edu/Courses/vsc610/mic205/griffith.jpg
  6. 6. Images from: http://microvet.arizona.edu/Courses/vsc610/mic205/griffith.jpg BUT. . . If he mixed heat-killed LETHAL bacteria with live harmless DIED ! . . . mice bacteria ________________ When he looked inside dead mice, he found LIVE LETHAL ______________ bacteria! Somehow the heat killed LETHAL bacteria passed their characteristics to the harmless bacteria.
  7. 7. See a video clip aboutGRIFFITH’S EXPERIMENTS (12A)
  8. 8. Griffith called this process TRANSFORMATION __________________ because one strain of bacteria had been changed permanently into another.But what was the factor that caused thetransformation?A protein ? A lipid ? A carbohydrate ? A nucleic acid ?
  9. 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oswald_Avery1944-Oswald Avery’s team of scientistsrepeat Griffith’s experimentslooking for the transforming molecule. After heat killing the LETHAL Pneumonia bacteria, he treated them with digestive enzymes that destroy specific kinds of molecules. If proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, or RNA’s were destroyed .. . Transformation still occurred! ______________________________http://cystitis-cystitis.com/Images/testtube.jpg http://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/mbi1440.htm
  10. 10. But when they treated the heat-killedLETHAL bacteria with enzymes to DNAdestroy _____ there was NOtransformation!. . . the mice lived!DNA was the moleculethat caused the geneticchange. http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm
  11. 11. GRIFFITH EXPERIMENT (PNEUMONIA-RAT)Showed ____________ could be genetic materialpassed between bacteria & cause achange.AVERY EXPERIMENT (Digestive enzymes) howed that the genetic material DNAwas _____
  12. 12. Scientists are skeptical… it takes more than one experiment to convince them.1952-Alfred Hershey and Martha Chaseexperimented with viruses that infect bacteriophages bacteria = _________________Knew bacteriophageswere made of proteins DNA________ and _______ Hear about their cool experiment http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Chase_&_Hershey_1953.jpg
  13. 13. http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/hersheychase-experiment.jpg
  14. 14. HERSHEY-CHASE BLENDER EXPERIMENT only DNA not proteinShowed_______________ entered cell during infection.Conclusion:______________in virus was Genetic material DNA_____ not protein
  15. 15. BACTERIAL VIRUSES http://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/mbi1440.htm
  16. 16. DNA is a DOUBLE HELIX http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/watsoncrick.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalind_FranklinX-ray experiments by Rosalind Franklinled James Watson and Francis Crick to thediscovery of the structure of DNA in 1953
  17. 17. Figure 12–7 Structure of DNASection 12-1 Nucleotide Hydrogen bonds Sugar-phosphate backbone Key Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)
  18. 18. NUCLEIC ACIDS are built from subunits called NUCLEOTIDES ____________________Image by: Riedell SUGAR in DNA is ________________ deoxyribose
  19. 19. NITROGEN BASES in DNA_____________= A ADENINE_____________ = G GUANINE CYTOSINE_____________ = C______________ = T THYMINE No URACIL
  20. 20. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID DOUBLE ______________ STRANDED Backbone (sides of ladder) made of _____________ PHOSPHATES andImage from: http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/picts/dna.jpg _____________ sugars
  21. 21. Nitrogen bases =“Steps of ladder” APhosphate Purinesgroup (2 rings) G CDeoxyribosesugar Pyrimidines T (1 ring) © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved
  22. 22. CHARGAFF’S RULES A = T _________ G = C _________ At time no one knew why… now we know its because Adenine always bonds THYMINE across with____________ Guanine always bonds CYTOSINE across with ____________Image from: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif
  23. 23. DOUBLE HELIX Hydrogen _____________ bonds between nitrogen bases hold the two strands together.Image from: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif
  24. 24. Interest Grabber Answers1. On a sheet of paper, draw a curving or zig-zagging line that divides the paper into two halves. Vary the bends in the line as you draw it. Without tracing, copy the line on a second sheet of paper.2. Hold the papers side by side, and compare the lines. Do they look the same? Lines will likely look similar.3. Now, stack the papers, one on top of the other, and hold the papers up to the light. Are the lines the same? Overlaying the papers will show variations in the lines.4. How could you use the original paper to draw exact copies of the line without tracing it? Use 1st line as a template to draw the line on another sheet of paper.5. Why is it important that the copies of DNA that are given to new daughter cells be exact copies of the original? Each cell must have the correct DNA, or the cell will not have the correct characteristics.
  26. 26. Chromosome Structure in Prokaryotes Approximately 5 million base pairs 3,000 genes Chromosome E. coli bacterium Bases on the chromosome DNA molecule in bacteria is: SINGLE ______________ CIRCULAR ______________ CYTOPLASM Found in __________ (NO nucleus)© Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved
  27. 27. DNA in EUKARYOTES is packaged into chromosomeshttp://www.paternityexperts.com/images/DNA-of-life.jpg Humans have approximately 3 billion base pairs (1 m long) 60,000 to 100,000 genes If the diameter of the DNA (2 nanometers) was as wide as a fishing line (0.5 millimeters) it might stretch as far as 21.2 km (or 13.6 miles) in length which would all have to be packed into a nucleus, the equivalent size of 25 cm in diameter. That is some packaging!
  28. 28. THINK ABOUT ITHow could you getthis piece ofstring into thecontainer? http://www.artzooks.com/files/3966/AZ533823_320.jpg http://www.mivaroo.com/sites/toyconnection.com/
  29. 29. Chromosome Structure of Eukaryotes © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chromosome Nucleosome DNA double helix Coils SupercoilsDNA is: Histones in multiple______________ chromosome bundles______________Found in __________ nucleus
  30. 30. Chromosome Structure of Eukaryotes © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reservedEukaryotic DNAchromosomes are Nucleosome double helixmade ofDNA PROTEINS_____ & __________called ___________ HISTONESTogether the DNA Histones& histone proteins forms a bead-like NUCLEOSOMEstructure called a ______________
  31. 31. © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reservedChromosome Structure of Eukaryotes Nucleosome Chromosome DNA double helix Coils Supercoils HistonesNucleosomes pack together to form thickcoiled fibers. When cell is NOT dividing,these fibers are spread out in nucleus asCHROMATIN___________. (Allows reading of code)
  32. 32. Chromosome Structure of Eukaryotes © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chromosome Nucleosome DNA double helix Coils Supercoils HistonesWhen cell gets ready to divide, thefibers pack even more tightly to form chromosomes___________.(Makes it easier to moveDNA during mitosis)
  33. 33. Image from: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif HOW IS DNA COPIED? The structure of DNA explains how it can be copied. Each strand has all the info needed to construct matching the __________other half. If strands are separated, _____________ rules allow base-pairing you to fill in the complementary bases.
  34. 34. Figure 12–11 DNA Replication Section 12-2 Original strand DNA New strand polymerase Growth DNA polymerase Growth Replication Replication Nitrogenous fork fork bases New strand OriginalSites where strand separation and strand replication forksreplication occur are called _____________
  35. 35. REPLICATION STEPS1.Enzymes “unzip” molecule by breaking_______________ that hold the strands Hydrogen bondstogether and unwind it. DNA polymerase2. _______________ joins nucleotidesusing original strand as template and spell checks______________for errors. opposite3. Copying happens in ________ directionsalong the two strands & in __________ multipleplaces at once.
  36. 36. REPLICATION ANIMATION See a video clip aboutDNA REPLICATION (12B)
  38. 38. RNA and PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 12-3 © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved
  39. 39. RNA- the Other Nucleic Acid NUCLEOTIDESAlso made of ___________ RIBOSESugar is _______ instead of deoxyribose. SINGLERNA is _________ stranded URACILContains _________ instead of thymine. http://images2.clinicaltools.com/images/gene/dna_versus_rna_reversed.jpg
  40. 40. 3 KINDS OF RNA HELP WITH INFO TRANSFER FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS RIBOSOMAL_________________RNA (rRNA)Combines with proteins to form ribosomes TRANSFER_________________RNA (tRNA)Matches m-RNA codon to add correctamino acids during protein synthesisMESSENGER_________________RNA (mRNA)carries code from DNA to ribosomes rRNA and t-RNA images from © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved mRNA image from http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/tmp/labeling/1140654_dyn.gif
  41. 41. Figure 12–14 Transcription Section 12-3 Adenine (DNA and RNA) Cystosine (DNA and RNA) Guanine(DNA and RNA) Thymine (DNA only) Uracil (RNA only) RNA polymerase DNA RNA RNA POLYMERASEEnzyme called _____________________separates strands, then uses one strandas a template to assemble an RNA copy.
  42. 42. How does RNA POLYMERASE know where a gene starts and stops?Enzyme binds to places with specific DNA PROMOTERS sequences called _______________. RNA POLYMERASEPROMOTERS tell _________________where to start.Signals at the end of the gene code cause stop transcription to _____ . http://images2.clinicaltools.com/images/gene/dna_versus_rna_reversed.jpg
  43. 43. Video 3 Transcription animation See another transcription animationSee a video clip aboutTRANSCRIPTION (12C) Transcription animation
  45. 45. RNA’s require EDITING before use Image by Riedell
  46. 46. WHY WASTE IT?Why spend energy making a large RNAand then throw parts away?May allow same gene to be used indifferent ways in different kinds of cells.May have a role in evolution… allows smallchanges in genes to have a big effect.
  47. 47. MASTER PLAN DNA stays safe in nucleus © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved TRANSCRIPTION (DNA→ RNA) & PROCESSING takes place in nucleus TRANSLATION (RNA→ proteins) takes place on ribosomes in cytoplasm “Blueprints” of master plan are carried to building sitehttp://www.home-improvement-resource.com/images/architect.jpg
  48. 48. HOW CAN JUST 4 BASES GIVE DIRECTIONS TO MAKE 20 AMINO ACIDS?Message is read in groups of 3 = _________ CODON UCGCACGGU UCG-CAC-GGU Serine - Histidine - Glycine Codons represent different amino acids
  49. 49. The m-RNA CodeSection 12-3 64 possible codons Some amino acids have more than one codon. AUG START= _______ STOP 3 codons for _____
  50. 50. EACH tRNA carries only one kind of amino acid _____________ANTICODON___________ on tRNAmatches up with CODON________on mRNAImages modified from © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved
  51. 51. Figure 12–18 TranslationSection 12-3
  52. 52. Figure 12–18 Translation (continued)Section 12-3
  53. 53. Video 4 SEE ANOTHER Translation AnimationSee a video clip about TRANSLATION VIDEOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS (Choose Large video) (12D)
  54. 54. Mendel/flower images from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookTOC.htmlBlood cell by Riedell GENES & PROTEINS Proteins are the connection between the gene code in the DNA and how that gene is expressed. A gene that codes for an enzyme (protein) to make a pigment can control the color of a flower. A gene that codes for an enzyme (protein) adds carbohydrates to glycoproteins to produce your blood type. Enzymes catalyze and regulate chemical reactions so proteins build and operate all cell components.
  55. 55. DNA → DNA ____________ REPLICATION TRANSCRIPTIONDNA → RNA ____________ TRANSLATIONRNA→ Protein ___________
  56. 56. Concept Map Section 12-3 can bealso called which functions to also called which functions to also called which functions to from to to make up
  57. 57. Concept Map Section 12-3 RNA can be Messenger RNA Ribosomal RNA Transfer RNAalso called which functions to also called which functions to also called which functions to Bring Combine mRNA Carry instructions rRNA tRNA amino acids to with proteins ribosome from to to make up DNA Ribosome Ribosomes
  58. 58. MUTATIONS 12-4
  59. 59. REMEMBER! MUTATIONS _______________ are changes in the genetic material.Mutations can happen when cells make mistakes_____________ in copying their own DNA radiationor be caused by _______________ or chemicals___________ in the enviroment.
  60. 60. KINDS OF MUTATIONSMutations that produce changes in a single GENE MUTATIONSgene = ______________________Mutations that produce changes in wholechromosomes = _____________________ CHROMOSOMAL MUTATIONS
  61. 61. GENE MUTATIONSMutations involving ________________ One or a few____________ = __________________ nucleotides Point mutationbecause they occur at a single point in theDNA sequence.TYPES OF POINT MUTATIONS: _____________________ substitutions deletions _____________________ insertions _____________________
  62. 62. SUBSTITUTIONChanges one base for anotherATTCGAGCTATTCTAGCT
  63. 63. SICKLE CELL ANEMIACAUSE: (autosomal recessive) A changed to T (glu to val) gene on chromosome #11 that codes for part of hemoglobin protein(carries oxygen in blood)
  64. 64. DELETIONPiece of DNA code for one gene is lost ________________________________________ Image from: http://www.biology-online.org/2/8_mutations.htm
  65. 65. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy CAUSE: (X linked recessive) DELETION in gene that codes for a muscle protein
  66. 66. INSERTIONPiece of DNA is copied too many timesImage from: http://www.biology-online.org/2/8_mutations.htm
  67. 67. GENE MUTATIONSSubstitutions usually affect no more than a Amino acidsingle ____________, but deletions andinsertions can have a more dramatic effect.IMAGE FROM BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
  68. 68. FRAME SHIFT MUTATIONSChange multiple bases in code thefatcatatetherat the fat cat ate the rat ____________________INSERTION thefatcatateateateatetherat the fat cat ate ate ate ate the ratDELETION thefatcatatetherat the fat ata tet her at
  69. 69. FRAME SHIFTSFrame shift mutations change every Amino acid___________ in the ___________ proteinthat follows the shift.Frame shifts can alter a protein somuch it is unable to _____________ function
  70. 70. CHROMOSOMAL MUTATIONSMutations involving changes in the Number structure_____________ or ______________of whole chromosomesTYPES OF CHROMOSOMAL MUTATIONS: _____________________ See a Video deletions (deletions duplications _____________________ & duplications See a Video inversions _____________________ (inversions & translocations translocations _____________________
  71. 71. DELETION Piece of chromosome is lost ________________________________________Image from: http://www.biology-online.org/2/8_mutations.htm
  72. 72. DUPLICATIONPiece of DNA is copied too many times ________________________________________________ Image from: http://www.biology-online.org/2/8_mutations.htm
  73. 73. HUNTINGTON’S • Degenerative brain disorder • Symptoms appear age 30-40 • Lose ability to walk, think, talk, reason • Cause = ADDITION of extra CAG repeats
  74. 74. INVERSION Segment flips and reads backwardsImage from: http://www.biology-online.org/2/8_mutations.htm
  75. 75. TRANSLOCATIONSegment breaks off and joins a different non-homologous chromosomeImage from: http://www.biology-online.org/2/8_mutations.htm
  76. 76. MUTATIONSMost mutations are ____________ neutralmeaning they have little or no effect ongene ____________. function defective proteinsMutations that cause ________________are usually ____________ HARMFULHarmful mutations are associated with genetic disordersmany________________ and can cause cancer____________
  77. 77. MUTATIONSMutations are also a source of Genetic variability_________________ and can be_____________ beneficial MORE ON THIS 2nd SEMESTER!Can help an organism_________________Survive and reproduce variationProvide _________in populationfor ____________ natural selectionto act upon
  78. 78. POLYPLOIDYCondition in which an organism hasextra sets of chromosomes= _______________ POLYPLOIDY LETHAL__________ in humans, but beneficialin some ___________. plants 3NTriploid (___) or tetraploid (___) 4Nplants are often ________________ larger and strongerthan diploid plants.
  79. 79. GENE REGULATION 12-5 http://www.awesomebackgrounds.com/s-energy-and-power.htm
  80. 80. Only a fraction of genes in a cell areexpressed (made into RNA) at any given time.How does the cell decide which will be turned on and which will stay “silent”? PROMOTERYou already know about _____________ regions that show RNA polymerase where to start. REGULATORY SITESThere are other ______________________ thatcontrol whether a gene is ON or OFF.
  81. 81. Typical Gene StructureSection 12-5 Promoter Regulatory (RNA polymerase sites DNA strand binding site) Start transcription Stop transcription
  82. 82. E. Coli lac operon See a MOVIE choose animation/narrated Group of genes that operate together are OPERON called an ________________ Genes code for enzymes needed to digest lactose sugar. Only needed if glucose is not availablehttp://www.life.uiuc.edu/bio100/lectures/s97lects/16GeneControl/lac_operon_ind.GIF
  83. 83. Most of time glucose is available so OFFlac operon is turned _____ by a REPRESSOR____________ molecule that sits on aregulatory site next to the promoter OPERATORcalled the ___________
  84. 84. What if there’s NO GLUCOSE?Cells need to get rid of the repressor ONand turn _____the lac genes to digestlactose instead.The presence of lactosecauses a change in theREPRESSOR____________ molecule soso it can’t bind theoperator site. Image modified from: http://www.life.uiuc.edu/bio100/lectures/s97lects/16GeneControl
  85. 85. Cells turn genes ON & OFF as neededMany genes are regulated by REPRESSOR _____________ proteins that keep them turned off until needed.Others use proteins that speed up transcription_______________ or affect protein synthesis___________________
  86. 86. EUKARYOTES are more COMPLEXAdditional regulatory sequences: ENHANCER 1. ___________ regions upstream from promoters bind many different regulatory proteins TATA box 2. __________ (TATATA or TATAAA) helps position RNA POLYMERASE Image by Riedell
  87. 87. DEVELOPMENT & DIFFERENTIATIONGene regulation is also important in shaping way organisms developHow does a zygote become a multi-cellular organism?How does it know what kind of cell to be?
  88. 88. DEVELOPMENT & DIFFERENTIATIONCells DIFFERENTIATE by turning different ________________ genes on and off. http://www.ncu.edu.tw/~ls/graph/faculty_pictures/whole_time/SLC/SLC_lab-1.jpgBUT… How does a cell know where it is in the body? and what genes it should turn on? and when?
  89. 89. In the 1980s, researchers discovered aseries of genes in fruit flies called Hox genes___________These genes control the organization of thedeveloping embryo and tell parts where togrow and when.Mutations to Hox genescan cause a leg to growwhere an antenna shouldsprout. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/history/hox.shtml
  90. 90. Since that time,HOX genes withalmost identicalsequences havebeen found in avariety oforganismsincluding HUMANS____________ © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved
  91. 91. HOX GENES Similar genes controlling the eyes of insects and our own eyes have also been discovered. Our version of the gene can be inserted in a fly and still trigger the building of an insect eye!http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/history/hox.shtml
  92. 92. SO WHAT?The similarities between HOX genesequences in very different organismsand the ability of these genes to tradeplaces and still function in differentspecies suggests that these organisms__________________________ share a common ancestor