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The renaissance Complete

  2. The Italian Renaissance • Renaissance  rebirth • Italian Renaissance  rebirth of ancient Greek & Roman worlds • Characteristics • Secular Urban society (City-states) • Age of Recovery • New view of human ability & worth
  3. Origins of the Renaissance • European trade with Asia increased during the 1300s. • 2. Italian merchants organized much of this trade. • 3. Trade cities in Italy grew wealthy. • 4. They competed to create works that would increase the prestige of their cities. Venice Genoa Milan
  4. Origins of the Renaissance (cont) • 5. Florence became a center for banking, art, culture, and literature. • 6. Cosimo de’ Medici wanted to make Florence the most beautiful city. • 7. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe.
  5. Important City-States of the Renaissance • Florence • Rome • Venice • Genoa • Milan Genoa Towers, Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Venice Façade and bell tower, Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Comune gi Milano, Milan
  6. City State Populations
  7. Florence • Center of art, literature, and culture. • Florence became wealthy from the manufacturing of wool. • Later Florence became the banking center of Italy. • The Medici family were the greatest bankers in Florence.
  8. Florence • The Renaissance started in Florence and spread throughout Europe. • Competition between the Italian city-states led to advances in literature, architecture, art, music, science, and education.
  9. Medici Family • Ruled Florence, 13th  17th Centuries • Aimed to make Florence the most beautiful city in the world – Became Patrons of the Arts. Commissioned artist (incl. da Vinci, Raphael & Michelangelo) • Lorenzo (The Magnificent) – created peace among Italian states, ended w/his death, 2 years later FR invades
  10. Rome • Home of the Catholic Church • Popes commissioned famous artists and architects to beautify Rome. Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli all produced major works in Rome.
  11. Rome • The popes employed the best artists and architects of the Renaissance to build and decorate the most opulent churches in in the world. • Michelangelo designed the finest example of Renaissance architecture in Rome, the Piazza del Campidoglio (bottom left). He also designed the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica (bottom right).
  12. Venice • Venice was the wealthiest city- state of the Renaissance. • It was a port city on the Mediterranean. • Venice maintained hundreds of merchant ships and warships, and thousands of sailors.
  13. Genoa • Genoa is located on the Mediterranean. • Genoa was one of two main port cities in Italy during the Renaissance. • Genoa was one of the wealthiest city-states of the Renaissance. • Dominated trade in the Mediterranean Genoa Harbor
  14. Milan • Milan dominated the inland trade routes because it was the gateway to Italy from the north. • Milan is the site of Santa Maria delle Grazie, the cathedral where Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper in the dining hall.
  15. Renaissance Society • Strict Class society • Nobility – most powerful, but smallest group • Strict rules and expectations • Born not made or earned • Townspeople • Wide range of wealth, from rich to poor • Provide goods & services • Peasants – weakest, but largest group • More freedoms as serfdom decreased • Mainly lived in rural areas, so were least impacted by Renaissance
  16. The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance
  17. Italian Renaissance Humanism • Stressed that man was the center of the universe and had dignity and value • Humanism – intellectual movement based on the classics • Study – grammar, rhetoric (debate), poetry, philosophy & history (the Humanities) • Ren Educations – based on humanism • Goal – create complete citizens • Vernacular Literature – written in common lang • Dante, Chaucer, Pizan
  18. Petrarch: “Father of Humanism” • Petrarch was a scholar and poet who was responsible for the recovery of manuscripts and works of Greek and Roman writers. • He traveled throughout Europe recovering manuscripts of Cicero and other Roman authors that had been lost in monastery libraries. • Petrarch, like other writers of the time, wrote in Latin. Francesco Petrarch
  19. Dante Alighieri • “Father of the Italian Language” • Wrote The Divine Comedy. • The Divine Comedy is considered one of the greatest works of Italian and world literature. • Dante was first to write in the vernacular, the language used in everyday life. Until his time, all European literature was written in Latin. Dante Alighieri
  20. The Artistic Renaissance in Italy • Rome became the center of Renaissance art in the 1500s. • Pope Alexander VI: most notorious of the Renaissances popes; spent huge sums on art patronage. • Master of early renaissance 1. Masaccio, Brunelleschi and Donatello • 3 Masters of the High Renaissance • Leonardo da Vinci • Michelangelo • Raphael • Sculpture & Architecture are include in Renaissance Art, both drew from Greek & Roman influenences
  21. New Artistic Techniques • Fresco – watercolor on fresh plaster • Law of Perspective • Study of human anatomy • GOAL – imitate nature From Michelangelo’s Sketch Book
  22. The Renaissance “Man”  Broad knowledge about many things in different fields.  Deep knowledge/skill in one area.  Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge.  The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education.  Master of realism & perspective  Studied human anatomy (cadavers) to be as accurate as possible  Sculptor, painter, astronomer, inventor – a true “Renaissance Man” 1452 - 1519
  23. Leonardo da Vinci, The Virgin of the Rocks Leonardo da Vinci 1483-1486
  24. Leonardo, the Artist: Fromhis Notebookofover5000 pages (1508-1519)
  25. Leonardo Da Vinci Mona Lisa (La Giocande) Oil on wood panel Fun Fact! Notice her lack of eyebrows! Women during this period would shave them off! It was considered fashionable to do so!
  26. MonaLisaOR da Vinci??
  27. Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper A page from one of da Vinci’s notebooks, he “coded” his work by writing backwards. He could read it, but most other people would need a mirror to read it.
  28. Leonardo da Vinci, “Last Supper” Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy
  29. “Last Supper” Perspective
  30. horizontal vertical Perspective! TheLastSupper-da Vinci,1498
  31. TheLastSupper-da Vinci,1498 & Geometry
  32. Refractory Convent ofSanta Maria delle Grazie Milan
  33. Detail of Jesus The Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci 1498 Deterioration
  34. Leonardo Da Vinci The Last Supper Tempera and mixed media on Plaster
  35. Leonardo, the Sculptor  An Equestrian Statue  1516-1518
  36. Leonardo, the Architect: Pages from his Notebook Study of a central church. 1488
  37. Leonardo, the Architect: Pages from his Notebook Plan of the city of Imola, 1502.
  38. Leonardo,the Scientist (Biology): Pages from his Notebook An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature.
  39. Leonardo,the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook
  40. Leonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his Notebook
  41. A study of siege defenses. Studies of water-lifting devices. Leonardo,the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook
  42. Michelangelo Buonarroti • Painter, sculptor and architect • Most famous for work in Vatican City Vatican City St. Peter’s Bascillica (large domed building) – designed by Michelangelo (St. Peter’s Square – designed by Bernini)
  43. Michelangelo Well known for his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. The ceiling illustrates the stories of the Book of Genesis The Creation of Adam The Last Judgement On the Alter Wall of the Sistine Chapel.
  44.  David by Donatello  1430  First free-form bronze since Roman times! TheLiberation of Sculpture
  45. David Verrocchio 1473 - 1475
  46. David Michelangelo Buonarotti 1504 Marble
  47. Michelangelo’s Detail
  48.  15c 16c  What a difference a century makes!
  49. Michelangelo, the sculptor The Pieta – marble statue of a crucified Jesus being held by his mother Mary. In St. Peter’s Basilica.
  50. TheSistineChapel Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 - 1512 Film Clip
  51. TheSistineChapel’sCeiling MichelangeloBuonarroti 1508 - 1512
  52. TheSistineChapelDetails The Creation of the Heavens
  53. TheSistineChapelDetails Creation of Man
  54. TheSistineChapelDetails The Fall from Grace
  55. Creation
  56. Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel
  57. Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel
  58. TheSistineChapelDetails The Last Judgment
  59. Raphael Santi • 1 of the top Renaissance painters • Especially known for his “Madonna's” – paintings of Mary the mother of Jesus • A major artist in the Vatican Madonna of the Meadows Madonna del Granduca
  60. Raphael Santi School of Athens - fresco in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. Thought to be Raphael’s masterpiece .
  61. Raphael’s “School of Athens”
  62. TheSchoolofAthens– Raphael, 1510 -11 One point perspective. All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included  all of the great personalities of the Seven Liberal Arts! A great variety of poses. Located in the papal apartments library. Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel. No Christian themes here.
  63. TheSchoolofAthens– Raphael, 1510 -11 Raphael Da Vinci Michelangelo
  64. Aristotle: looks to this earth [the here and now]. Plato: looks to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm]. TheSchoolofAthens– Raphael, details Film Clip
  65. Averroes Hypatia Pythagoras
  66. Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid
  67. Raphael Santi The bracketed names are the contemporary characters from whom Raphael is thought to have drawn his likenesses. 6: Pythagoras? 7: Alexander the Great? 12: Socrates? 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 14: Plato holding the Timaeus (Leonardo da Vinci) 15: Aristotle holding the Ethics? 16: Diogenes of Sinope? 17: 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael)
  68. Northern Italian Renaissance • Centered in Low Countries – Belg, Lux, Neth • Due to weather- few frescoes • Stained glass, wooden panels, canvas • Jan van Eyck – Flemish, perfected use of oil paints • Oils allow greater variety of color & detail Portrait of a Man in a Turban , probably a self-portrait, painted 1433
  69. The Renaissance moves North! About 100 years after the Renaissance began it Italy, It moved north to Flanders (Northern Belgium).  Took longer to recover from the economic devastation brought on by the black plague.  100 years war in France/England Remember me?
  70. Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art  Contained great detail  More landscape and nature paintings - usually darker and colder  Oil painting on Canvas – allowed for vivid color  Paintings are less secular. More religious questioning.  More scenes of daily life.
  71. Medieval vs. Renaissance Architecture Gothic (Medieval) •Gothic architecture was very large, “pointy” •Flying buttresses supported large walls •Stained glass told stories Renaissance •Revival of Arch and Dome •Qualities of Greek and Roman architecture •Used columns for support Intricate design
  72. Renaissance Architecture vs. Medieval Architecture El Tempieto Donato Bramante Notre Dame Cathedral
  73. Il Duomo Brunelleschi
  74. Filippo Brunelleschi 1377 - 1436 Architect of the Duomo Cuppolo of St. Maria del Fiore
  75. Filippo Brunelleschi • Commissioned to build the cathedral dome. • Used unique architectural concepts.  He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome.  Used ribs for support.
  76. Brunelleschi’s Dome
  77. Comparing Domes
  78. Other Famous Domes Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
  79.  Influcenced by archectiture of the classical period (Greece, Rome)  Use of Domes, arches, and columns. Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture
  80. Albrecht Durer • German • 1 of greatest Northern Renaissance artists • Revolutionized woodcuts • Studied in Italy on several different occasions
  81. The Printing Press • Johannes Gutenberg was a German goldsmith and printer. • Gutenberg was the first to develop movable type. This allowed for mass production of books. • Gutenberg’s invention revolutionized book-making in Europe. • Gutenberg was the key figure in spreading the Renaissance. • His invention of movable type is still considered the most important invention in history.
  82. IMPACT • Much easier to publish books • Increased literacy • 1450-1500, 20 million books printed covering 35,000 topics • Vernacular Literature – written in common language • Dante, Chaucer, Shakespeare
  83. Writers of the Renaissance • With the printing press. books become more affordable and more people (mostly wealthy) learn to read • Dante, Petrarch and Machiavelli were all important writers of the time • But there were more…
  84. Miguel de Cervantes • Cervantes was a Spanish novelist, poet, painter, and playwright. He was born in La Mancha, Spain. • Cervantes wrote the novel Don Quixote, the most influential work of literature to come out of the Spanish Golden Age. • Cervantes was a man of adventure. It was said that he left Castile because of a duel. • Cervantes got the idea for Don Quixote while serving one of two prison terms for irregularities in his bookkeeping as a tax collector and purchasing agent.
  85. New Words Abound… Alligator Laughingstock Worthless Critical Lonely Zany Equivocal Luggage Eyeball Manager Eyesore Puke Gloomy Torture But where did they come from?
  86. William Shakespeare • Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer and dramatist of all time. • Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet, Merchant of Venice, Julius Caesar, A Midsummer’s Night Dream, Henry IV, Henry V, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth Night, Hamlet and more. • Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two narrative poems, and other poems. “All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players there, they have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts….” William Shakespeare
  87. Shakespeare • William Shakespeare (1564-1616)– Elizabethan era • Greatest of English Renaissance authors • His work reflected the Renaissance ideas of classical Greek and Roman culture, individualism and humanism • Wrote comedies, tragedies, histories and sonnets • Known for the “timelessness” of his work • Close to 300 movies and TV adaptations have been made of Shakespeare’s work (e.g. Ten Things I Hate About You, a rendition of The Taming of the Shrew)
  88. Contributions of the Renaissance • Invention of the Gutenberg Press • The banking industry • Exploration, colonization of world • Expansion of trade • Humanism, individual is the center of the universe • Reintroduction of Greek and Roman knowledge and philosophy • Gateway to modern art forms • Expansion of Greek and Roman architecture and sculpture • Increased scientific knowledge, and desire to know more
  89. The Italian Wars (1494-1559) • Powerful IT monarchs & foreign countries (SP, FR, HRE, Ott Emp…) vied for control • Charles I (SP) allowed sack of Rome (May 5, 1527) • Pope Clement forced to flee • Aftermath: • End of Roman Renaissance • Damaged Papal prestige • SP dominant power in IT • Charles V given freedom to act on Reformation in Germany FYI – In commemoration, all new Swiss Guard members are sworn in on May 6 of each year.
  90. THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION • Religious reforms dividing western Christianity • Roman Catholic Church criticized for abuse of power and corruption • Christian Humanists–wanted to reform Church • Believed through reason, and studying the classics one could become more pious(Christ-like) • Desiderius Erasmus–father of Christian Humanism • Suggested reforming from within the Church
  91. Desiderius Erasmus • Erasmus was a Dutch scholar, humanist, and theologian. • Erasmus was ordained a Catholic priest, but never practiced priestly duties. • Instead, he studied theology and classical Greek at the universities of Paris and Cambridge. • Erasmus was critical of some of the practices and doctrines of the Catholic Church. • Erasmus sought to reform the Catholic Church. Desiderius Erasmus
  92. Calls to Reform the Church • In Praise of Folly - by Erasmus • Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550) • Erasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to reform the Church, not destroy it • Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy • The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther
  93. Why reform? • Popes corrupted by power & lose focus of spiritual leadership • Scientific advances contradicted the Church • People wanted to know how to save souls • Indulgences –a release of a soul from purgatory for monetary donation – a HUGE abuse of Church power!
  94. What was the Protestant Reformation? • Prior to the Reformation all Christians were Roman Catholic • The [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church • People like Martin Luther wanted to get rid of the corruption and restore the people’s faith in the church • In the end the reformers, like Luther, established their own religions • The Reformation caused a split in Christianity with the formation of these new Protestant religions
  95. Scan graphic?
  96. MARTIN LUTHER • German Priest • Saw problems in the Church • Church believed salvation gained from faith + good work • Luther thought faith alone gained salvation • Oct 31, 1517 – Posted 95 Theses on church door in Wittenburg, Ger • His criticisms of Church • 1000s of copies distributed through Germany
  97. The Reformation Begins • By 1521 Luther moving toward spilt from Church • Wanted Ger princes to overthrow Papal power in Germany & est a German Church • By Jan 1521 – Luther excommunicated • Summoned by Imperial Diet of HRE to Worms • Called by Emperor Charles V, wanted Luther to change his ideas, Luther – “NO” • Edict of Worms issued, making Luther an outlaw • Luther kept in hiding by his prince
  98. Lutheranism • Followers of Luther’s religious practices • Gained support of many German princes • 1524, German peasants revolted & hoped Luther would support them, because Luther needed the princes’ support, he did not help the peasants • Germany in turmoil – Catholic? Lutheran? • To achieve peace HRE Emperor Charles V accepted the Peace of Augsburg (allowed Ger princes to choose the faith of their region)
  99. Protestantism Spreads - Zwingli • Ulrich Zwingli – priest in Zurich, Switzerland • Zwinglian Reformation • Banned all religious relics & images • Whitewashed all church interiors • No music in church services • Does note merge w/Luther b/c can’t agree with the meaning of communion
  100. Protestantism Spreads - Calvin • John Calvin replaces Zwingli (killed in rel war) • French, fled for safety to Switzerland • 1536 – began reforming Geneva, Switz. • Created a church govt of elect & laity • Used consistory (moral police) • Sent missionaries thru Eur to convert Cath. • Ideas spread  FR, Neth, Scot… • Mid 16th C – Calvinism more pop than Lutheranism
  101. Reformation in England • Political, not religious motives for reform • Henry VIII – King of England • Needs a male heir to carry on the Tudor Dynasty • Married Catherine of Aragon (Aunt of Charles V,HRE Emperor) • Have a daughter, Mary • No son, so Henry wants a divorce! In the Catholic Church, you need an annulment, granted by the Church. The Pope grants it for a King.
  102. Reformation in England (cont) • The Pope refused to grant the annulment, too political (King of Eng vs. HRE Emperor) • After a long argument, Henry decided to break from Catholic Church • Archbishop of Canterbury granted divorce • Act of Supremacy(1534) est Church of Eng • King control over doctrine, appointments, etc • Dissolves Cath claims, sells land & possessions • Remained close to Cath teachings
  103. Henry & his wives • Henry was desperate for a son. So much so he married 6 times!! • The saying goes… Divorced, Beheaded, Died Divorced, Beheaded, Survived Horrible Histories
  104. The Church of England • 1547 – Henry died • His 9 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne • The Church of England- aka Anglican Church • Became more Protestant • Angering Catholics • 1553 – Edward dies • His half-sister Mary (Catholic) takes throne • She wants to restore Catholicism • “Bloody Mary” has 300+ Prot burned as heretics • Increases tensions btw Cath & Prot
  105. The Catholic Reformation • Protestantism spreading rapidly through Eur • Church sees need to reform • Raises the standards of the clergy • Inspired the Church with a renewed zeal and morale • Contributed significantly to producing the Catholic Church as we know it today. • Pillars of Catholic Reformation • 1. Reform of Papacy • 2. Society of Jesus (Jesuits) • 3. Council of Trent
  106. The Papacy • Corruption had to be addressed • Pope Paul II led papal reform • Oversaw the creation of the Jesuit order • Opened the Council of Trent • Revived the Inquisition
  107. The Jesuits • Most significant agency of Catholic reform • Founded by Ignatius of Loyola • Spanish soldier • Injured in battle • Had a conversion during recovery, dedicated himself to the Church
  108. Role of Jesuits • Missionaries • Convert former and non-Catholics • Urged the religious education of children • Devoted to religious and secular education • Secondary schools • Colleges/Universities • Seminaries
  109. Council of Trent • Met over 18 year period (1545-63) • Reaffirmed Catholic teaching • Including 7 sacraments • Maintained salvation was gained through faith and good works • More strict rules for clergy • Incl more education for priests • Each diocese established a seminary • Banned indulgences!!
  110. The Inquisition • Church’s way to suppress heresy • Infamous for its cruelty • Followed strictly in Spain, Portugal and Rome • Some countries, like France, refused