Tvol intro Policy coordinator at CC Based in sf bay area Thank you to Sami and Brian for inviting me to share with you today a little bit of the work of Creative Commons Hope the next hour will be informative for you
here’s brief overview of some of the topics we’d like to cover today First, I can talk about what CC is and how it works Then I’ll discuss some of the big users of creative commons licenses and tools Spend a little bit of time on cc specifically within governments, which is happening around the world Highlight a few of our top priority projects at CC Do a demo of how to search for cc licensed media in various formats Have plenty of time for your questions or ideas
Creative Commons is a U.S.-based 501(c)3 non-profit organization with 30 employees around the world and an international network of affiliates in 70+ jurisdictions. Our vision is nothing less than realizing the full potential of the Internet—universal access to research and education, full participation in culture—to drive a new era of development, growth, and productivity.
The mission of Creative Commons is to develop, support and steward legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing and innovation. You might ask, what does “legal and technical infrastructure actually mean?
CC offers a suite of free copyright licenses and public domain tools that give everyone from individual creators to large companies and institutions a simple, standardized way to keep their copyright while allowing certain uses of their work. It makes sharing creativity on the web work, both legally and at scale.
In order to realize the value that creative commons represents, we need to take step back and look at why we need CC in the first place The problem is our existing copyright system Copyright is increasingly relevant to daily life We’re all copyright holders when we think about it, especially in the digital world min i take a photo, post a blog post online, record a piece of music, copyright attaches to it Copyright covers all forms of creativity, including literature, music, architecture, software, etc. Copyright is automatic the moment creativity is “fixed in tangible medium” in the US, Copyright lasts a long time (life of author + 70 years) in the US, The original purpose of copyright is “to promote the progress of science and useful arts”? How are we doing today? Not so good. Copyright law requires that you ask permission in advance; this is not well integrated with how the web works, how technology works, and how society works Enter Creative Commons
CC is a “some rights reserved” approach to the default “all rights reserved” copyright regime.
I’d like to talk a little about the CC licenses themselves, which you might already know a little about Creative Commons licenses are flexible yet powerful, offering a range of choices for licensors to communicate the rights they wish their works to carry. Creators who wish to apply a CC license to their works can do so by stepping through a simple 2 step process. CC licenses are comprised of basic conditions, and the first step for licensors is to choose the conditions they wish to attach to their creativity. All Creative Commons licenses require that attribution be given to the original author. After that, licensors can choose additional conditions. The ShareAlike condition requires that users who incorporate content licensed under a license containing this condition license their own published creations that include that content under the same license. The NonCommercial condition prohibits commercial uses of the licensed content. The NoDerivatives condition requires that subsequent users not alter the licensed content.
After the creator has chosen the conditions they wish to apply to their work, the final step is to simply receive the license. Licensors can do this directly via the Creative Commons website, at https://creativecommons.org/choose/. Alternatively, some services like Flickr, Soundcloud, Vimeo, and other build the license chooser directly into their services, so users can license content directly via their site. For example, on my flickr account, I license all my photos under the CC BY license. This means that I allow anyone, anywhere in the world to copy, share, and adapt my photos, even for commercial purposes, as long as they give me credit as the original author These may be mixed into a limited set of configurations, resulting in 6 licenses. To view a description of each of the 6 licenses, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/.
The CC licenses incorporate a unique and innovative “three-layer” design. Taken together, these three layers of licenses ensure that the spectrum of rights isn’t just a legal concept. It’s something that the creators of works can understand, their users can understand, and even the Web itself can understand.
Each license begins as a traditional legal tool, in the kind of language and text formats that most lawyers know and love. We call this the Legal Code layer of each license. Sometimes we refer to this as the “lawyer readable” license
But since most creators, educators, and scientists are not in fact lawyers, we also make the licenses available in a format that normal people can read — the Commons Deed (also known as the “human readable” version of the license). The Commons Deed is a handy reference for licensors and licensees, summarizing and expressing some of the most important terms and conditions. Think of the Commons Deed as a user-friendly interface to the Legal Code beneath, although the Deed itself is not a license, and its contents are not part of the Legal Code itself.
The final layer of the license design recognizes that software, from search engines to office productivity to music editing, plays an enormous role in the creation, copying, discovery, and distribution of works. In order to make it easy for the Web to know when a work is available under a Creative Commons license, we provide a “machine readable” version of the license — a summary of the key freedoms and obligations written into a format that software systems, search engines, and other kinds of technology can understand. We’ll explore this a little more later when we talk about search and discovery
Creative commons is not anti-copyright. CC actually doesn’t work without copyright law. Every Creative Commons license works around the world and lasts as long as applicable copyright lasts (because they are built on copyright). CC licenses are nonexclusive licenses; just because I license my photos under one license on flickr doesn’t mean that I can’t enter into another agreement for a magazine to use the photo and pay me for it. Also, our licenses do not affect freedoms that the law grants to users of creative works otherwise protected by copyright, such as exceptions and limitations to copyright law like fair use. Licensees must credit the licensor, keep copyright notices intact on all copies of the work, and link to the license from copies of the work. Licensees cannot use technological measures such as DRM to restrict access to the work by others.
In addition to the 6 licenses, CC also provide tools that work in the “all rights granted” space of the public domain. One is called CC Zero and the other is the Public Domain Mark. The CC0 tool allows licensors to waive all rights and place a work in the public domain, prior to the expiration of copyright. The Public Domain Mark allows any web user to “mark” a work as already being in the public domain, such as for extremely old creative works where it’s clear the copyright has expired.
Creative Commons licenses are applicable worldwide. Also, CC licenses are “localized” in countries around the world. This means two things. First, the license is adapted to mold to the contour of that country’s copyright law. Second, the license is linguistically translated to the local language.
Creative commons is 10 years old this year. There are over 400 million CC-licensed works published on the Web. This is a conservative estimate. As use of Creative Commons licenses has grown, the mix of licenses used has changed. After its ”first year, only about 20% of works were licensed to permit in advance both remix and commercial use – that is, considered fully “free” or “open.” After 8 years, that proportion had approximately doubled.
- let’s chat a bit about some of the areas that leverage CC licenses and tools to share their creativity
Here are some high level cateogories Creative Commons licenses and public domain tools are used in a variety of areas, including by artists and the cultural sector, in science and scholarly research, by governments and public sector bodies, in education via teachers, students, and self learners, and many, many more.
For example, CC licenses and tools are integrated into hundreds of websites and projects on the web, including YouTube, Wikipedia, Al Jazeera, MIT Open Courseware, Public Library of Science, and many others.
An interesting component of CC-licensed content that is leveraged by both the licensors and licensees is that it is indexed by major search engines and other technologies that integrate the licensing API into their products. We aggregate some of these search interfaces via our general cc search at search.creativecommons.org. There, you can search across a variety of multimedia, including videos, photos, audio, and web text
Perhaps one of the most powerful tools we have is that Google itself indexes content based on whether a cc license is attached to it. Thorugh the advanced search interface at google.com Users can filter for CC-licensed stuff and google will only return those results. Very useful because users then now how they can use the content they discover. Great for teachers, students, musicians, everyone
Another important aspect of CC-licensed content is that it can be translated into other languages and made accessible for viewing and use on various technological platforms without having to ask for permission. Permission is granted in advance via the CC license. One example of this are the 800+ MIT OCW courses which have been translated into languages other than English, all without needing to ask permission from the copyright holder.
Finally, a powerful feature of CC-licensed content is that it can be remixed, customized, kept up-to-date more easily, and even make things like learning materials more affordable. One example of this is the commercial textbook publisher Flat World Knowledge. Flat World Knowledge incorporate Creative Commons licensing into the core of their business model, offering free, customizable online access to digital textbooks under a CC license, and provides affordable print-on-demand physical copies of textbooks and supplemental materials. In this way, Flat World Knowledge supports teachers who wish to tailor digital textbooks to their classroom needs, and champions reasonably-priced offline versions of textbooks too.
- Of course perhaps especially pertinent to you all might be a brief discussion of where and how cc licenses and tools are used in governments.
For example, in the US, the White House uses Creative Commons licensing. All user contributions to whitehouse.gov are licensed under a CC Attribution license
This is a good start, but the depths of use of cc licenses and tools varies around the world Over 30 governments take advantage of CC Some incorporate CC across the public sector For example, australia and new zealand have adopted extensive policies that license their public sector information, government data, educational and training resources, and research findings under CC Other nations like the netherlands go even further in some ways, releasing some government information and data directly into the public domain under the CC0 tool, for unrestricted use by anyone around the world
We and others have noted that Integrating CC into publishing and distribution platforms can help governments serve diverse communities of existing—as well as yet unidentified—users, whether they be citizens, governments, civic institutions, and businesses across all sectors. Impossible for governments to predict the best way that their citizens will utilize the data and resources that their tax dollars pay for. So, why not make that data and materials available for innovatiive reuse? Governments can add content to the commons, just like cultural institutions, individuals, educators, and others. By clearly communicating to users the rights granted to them in advance, CC licensed content can be immediately useable, interoperable, and compatible with hundreds of thousands of other openly licensed resources, such as those on Wikipedia. Even though governments utilize CC, they can ensure they receive credit, since attribution is required via the CC license. And the government body itself can set how they wish to be attributed.
For example, here is a $50 million health it grant program run through the Dept of health and human services. Work produced by grantees are licnesed under a cc license; in this case the CC BY NC SA
As mentioned before, the licenses are powerful communicators to those who wish to use the resources by providing the basic “terms of service” in advance Makes clear that the resource is licensed under a specific cc license, and provides information to the licensor about how to attribute the original creator In order to satisfy requirements about funding source, the CC license engine can also help display this info by including it with the attribution statement. Useful to help grantees stay in compliance.
Open policies are the future Requiring open licensing be applied to the tangible grant outputs of national, state, local governments, IGOs, philanthropic foundations, and other publicly minded funding bodies simply makes sense The public should have access to the stuff they fund the creation of Foundations are using CC in support of OER, like Hewlett foundation, and gates foundation Washington State Board for Community & Technical Colleges; all grant funds that funnel through SBCTC must have CC BY license attached new innovative models at the local level; Open High School of Utah, releasing their high school curriculum so other schools can use and localize
I wanted to mention 2 big projects we’re working on
The first is a technical assistance program we’re offering to grantees to a department of labor grantees This last year the DOL in conjunction with ED announced a $2 Billion dollars over 4 years Grants will support the development and improvement of a new generation of free, community college education programs that prepare students for successful careers in emerging and expanding industries; as well as worker retraining aiding displaced workers
All new material produced must be licensed with a Creative Commons BY license - This License allows subsequent users to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the copyrighted work and requires such users to attribute the work in the manner specified by the Grantee. Baked into the grant solicitiation. If you want the money, you need to promise to share what you create with other colleges, and with the world extremely exciting; first large scale inclusion of CC at the US federal level
Cc is working with several other groups to provide technical assistance to the grantwinners Creative Commons will lend technical support in meeting the open licensing requirement and ensuring interoperability of content. Other groups we’ll be working with include Carnegie Mellon’s Open Learning initiative, CAST, and the Washington State Board for Community & Technical colleges OLI and CAST will support institutions that are committed to using data to continuously assess the effectiveness of their strategies in order to improve their program… and build evidence about effective practice SBCTC will offer policy expertise in educating community colleges about the benefits and opportunities of open policies Grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Another project is the learning resources metadata iniative In colaboration with the Association of Education Publishers Realization that if teachers and students can’t find high quality materials that align to their needs, what’s the point Everyone using the web and search Let’s work together to build a common metadata vocabulary (10-15 terms) to tag educational content that then can be consumed by major search engine, like Google, Bing, Yahoo
This is still in development, but you an imagine how it might work Right now if you go to google and type in potato salad recipe, this cool little menu pops up on the left navigation bar that allows you to filter your ingredient choices For example, you can filter whether you want to see potato salad recipes that contain mustard, or contain paprika, or the like What if we could do this when searching for educational materials? For example, I’m a teachers, and I want to discover high quality educational materials appropriate for my 5 th grade students,te in English, and what if I could filter for resources that align to common core state standards too? What if I could filter for resources licensed under a liberal cc licnese, so I know I can use it, remix, and reshare on our class blog? This is the promise of LRMI
“ machine readable” metadata <span xmlns:cc=“ http://creativecommons.org/ns# ” xmlns:dc= http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ ” > <span rel="dc:type" href=" http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text " property="dc:title">My Photo</span> by <a rel="cc:attributionURL" property="cc:attributionName" href=" http://joi.ito.com/my_photo ">Joi Ito</a> is licensed under a <a rel="license" href= "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</a>. <span rel="dc:source" href="http://fredbenenson.com/photo/ ” > Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at <a rel="cc:morePermissions" href="http://ozmo.com/revenue_sharing_agreement ">OZMO</a>. </span></span>
<ul><li>applicable globally </li></ul><ul><li>irrevocable and perpetual </li></ul><ul><li>nonexclusive and allows for dual licensing </li></ul><ul><li>does not preclude limitations and exceptions to copyright </li></ul>
CC0 public domain dedication Public Domain Mark
<ul><li>Wide dissemination of content, research, data to diverse audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize impact of funding and efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Published content immediately interoperable with expanding digital commons </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed content discoverable by search engines </li></ul><ul><li>Receive credit in the manner desired </li></ul>How do governments benefit from using CC?
<ul><li>This work is made available under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (unported), available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ . Please attribute this work to “Oregon Health & Science University.” </li></ul><ul><li>This material was developed by Oregon Health & Science University, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015. </li></ul>
This work is dedicated to the public domain. https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ . Attribution is optional, but if desired, please attribute to Creative Commons. Some content such as screenshots may appear here under exceptions to copyright and trademark law such as fair use, and may not be covered by CC0.