Creating capabilities.duckworth.042410

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Creating capabilities.duckworth.042410

  1. 1. Strategia: An approach to cultivating self-control Angela Lee Duckworth Department of Psychology University of Pennsylvania
  2. 2. “ One of the most significant contrasts among the factors residing within the individual is that between capacity and industry ” Clark Hull, 1928
  3. 3. Effort/ Practice SKILL Latent Talent
  4. 4. Skill as a function of deliberate practice Skill Age (years) Figure adapted with permission from “The scientific study of expert levels of performance” by K.A. Ericsson, p. 90, © 1998
  5. 5. Skill as a function of deliberate practice Skill Age (years) Figure adapted with permission from “The scientific study of expert levels of performance” by K.A. Ericsson, p. 90, © 1998 Less talented individual?
  6. 6. Effort/ Practice SKILL Latent Talent Intrinsic interest Grit Self-efficacy Self-control Goal choice and commitment
  7. 7. Deliberate practice ≠ immediate gratification
  8. 8. Students “beeped” while doing homework or studying say…it’s not enjoyable or easy … but it’s important to their long-term goals
  9. 9. Deliberate Practice SKILL Latent Talent Intrinsic interest Grit Self-efficacy Self-control Ability to regulate behavior after goals have been selected
  10. 10. Learnable, teachable strategies facilitate self-control
  11. 11. The “marshmallow test” <ul><li>Four-year old preschoolers </li></ul><ul><li>One marshmallow now vs. two later </li></ul><ul><li>Wait time in seconds predicts SAT scores more than 10 years later, as well as a range of social-cognitive, personal and other competencies. (explains 18% of variance in verbal SAT and 32% of variance in math SAT scores) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Is it really self-control?
  13. 13. Is it actually IQ?
  14. 14.
  15. 15. What NCLB leaves behind
  16. 16. Insights from the marshmallow studies <ul><li>Temptations were somewhat idiosyncratic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children can learn to identify the types of temptations that are “hottest” for them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic use of distraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of sight, out of mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluffy white clouds are not tempting </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Cognitively transforming an angry memory… … Replay the event as it unfolds in your imagination through your own eyes. … Replay the event as it unfolds in your imagination as you observe your distant self. VS
  18. 18. … reduces negative affect
  19. 19. If-then planning <ul><li>Self-control is not helped much by “Try your best!” exhortations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals are more effective (e.g., “Complete your math homework every day.”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When goals are specific, feedback is possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An if-then plan specifies where, when, and how you will accomplish your goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If it is a weekday at 6pm, I will go to my room and open my book bag to do my work.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And, “If my brother bothers me, I will…” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. From strategies to habits <ul><li>“ Our virtues are habits as much as our vices…our nervous systems have grown to the way in which they have been exercised, just as a sheet of paper or a coat, once creased or folded, tends to fall forever afterward into the same identical folds” --William James (1899) </li></ul>

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